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Human Resources





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Work plays a major part in most people’s lives. People of all sorts work in business, and the terms businessman and businesswoman reflect this, referring to a wide range of individuals, from the rich and famous to small company owners, from people in large organizations to those who work for themselves.

Many people choose to be self-employed (to have their own business) or to work freelance for several employers. As the labour market becomes more flexible, many employers respond by increasing the number of fixed-term contracts and part-time workers.

The people within an organization are its human resource. Human resources is a term with which many organizations describe the combination of traditionally administrative personnel functions with performance, employee relations and resource planning.

“Human Resources” has at least two related interpretations depending on context.

The original usage derives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called labour, one of four factors of production.

The more common usage within corporations and businesses refers: 1) to the individuals within the firm, and 2) to the portion of the firm’s organization that deals with hiring, firing, training, and other personnel issues.

The objective of human resources is to maximize the return on investment from the organization’s human capital and minimize financial risk. Thus, “Human Resources” means people, plus the skills and experience they bring to an organization.

It is the responsibility of Human Resources Managers (HRM) to conduct these activities in an effective, legal, fair, and consistent manner.

Most corporate organizations that compete in the modern global economy have adopted a view of human capital that mirrors the modern trend of regarding people the most valuable asset of a company. Some of these, in turn, deprecate the term “human resources” as useless.

The debate regarding “human resources” versus “human capital” in many ways echoes the debate regarding natural resources versus natural capital. Modern analysis emphasizes that human beings are not “commodities” or “resources”, but are creative and social beings in a productive enterprise.



The Human Resources Department (HRD) of a company is responsible for planning, recruitment of new people, staff training and development, staff appraisal, welfare, pensions administration and industrial relations.

At the same time, considering the activities of the Human Resources Department in their traditional but extremely narrow context of hiring, firing, and job description is widely seen as 20th century anachronism.

HRD works to ensure that the right people are available to meet the company’s needs. One of the ways to achieve the goal is development of human resources.

Human resources development is a framework for the expansion of human capital within an organization. Human resources development is a combination of training and education that ensures the continual improvement and growth of both the individual and the organisation.

 

Vocabulary Notes:

1. self-employed [ֽselfım`plOıd] – який працює не за наймом; який обслуговує власне підприємство;

2. to work freelance [ֽwə:k `fri:lα:nts] – працювати не за наймом; бути вільним художником; працювати позаштатним співробітником, фрілансером;

3. fixed-term contract [ֽfıkst`tə:m `kOntrækt] – контракт на визначений термін; контракт, укладений на певний термін (контракт, який укладено на певний термін, і який не містить зобов’язання продовжити або поновити його по завершенню даного терміну);

4. part-time worker [ֽpα:t`taım `wə:kə] – працівник, який зайнятий неповний робочий день; сумісник;

5. performance [pə`fO:mənts] / [pər`fO:rmənts] – результати діяльності; показники діяльності; досягнуті результати;

6. employee relations [ım`plOıi: rı`leı∫ənz] – взаємостосунки між членами колективу;

7. hiring [`haıərıŋ] – наймання, найняття; договір особистого найму; договір майнового найму нерухомості; прокат (речей);

8. firing [`faıərıŋ] – звільнення (за рішенням роботодавця);

9. return on investment [rı`tə:n On ın`vestmənt] – дохід на інвестиції; дохід на вкладений капітал; дохід на капіталовкладення; прибуток на інвестиції; прибуток від капіталовкладень; дохід на капітал; віддача від інвестицій; віддача від інвестицій; прибуток на капіталовкладення (відношення доходів на сукупний капітал до виплати відсотків; сплати податків і розподілу дивідендів);

10. to deprecate [`deprəkeıt] – сильно заперечувати; виступати проти; протестувати; різко засуджувати;

11. to echoe [`ekəu] – вторити, повторювати, наслідувати;

12. recruitment [rı`kru:tmənt] – набір, вербування; комплектування особо-вим складом; набір новобранців, притягнення до військової служби;

13. staff training [ֽstα:f `treınıŋ] – підготовка кадрів;

14. staff development [ֽstα:f dı`veləpmənt] – кадрова робота, робота з кадрами;

15. staff appraisal [ֽstα:f ə`preızəl] – оцінка персоналу (аналіз відповідності нахилів, навичок, знань працівника тим завданням, які він виконує в ході своєї роботи; за результатами оцінки персоналу можуть прийматися рішення щодо переведення, підвищення заробітної плати, направлення на курси підвищення кваліфікації і т.д.);

16. welfare [`welfeə] / [`welfer] – добробут, достаток; благо; благополуччя; благодійність; соціальне забезпечення;

17. industrial relations [ın`dAstriəl rı`leı∫ənz] – трудові відносини; відносини між адміністрацією і працівниками;

18. anachronism [ə`nækrəֽnızəm] – анахронізм, пережиток минулого;

19. framework [`freımwə:k] – структура; рамки; межі;

20. human resources development [`hju:mən rı`zO:sız dı`veləpmənt] – розвиток людських ресурсів (набір методів оцінки, розвитку й раціонального використання здібностей та навичок персоналу заради досягнення як організаційних, так і індивідуальних цілей).



 

Task 7.Correct the following false statements.

 

1. Work plays an insignificant part in most people’s lives.

2. The terms “businessman” and “businesswoman” reflect the fact that only the rich and famous work in business.

3. The people within an organization are its natural resources.

4. The term “human resources” has two related interpretations depending on context.

5. The original usage of “human resources” derives from political economy and economics, where it was traditionally called slaver.

6. The objective of human resources is to minimize the return on investment from the organization’s human capital and maximize financial risk.

7. “Human resources” means people, plus the money and talents they bring to an organization.

8. The production department works to ensure that the right people are available to meet the company’s needs.

9. Modern analysis emphasizes that human beings are not creative and social beings in a productive enterprise.

10. The traditional context of hiring, firing, and job description is considered a 21st century synchronism.

11. Human resources development is a framework for arranging manpower drain within an organization.

 

Task 8.Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate items.

 

1. Work plays a major part in … people’s lives.

A.all;

B.most;

C.some;

 

2. People of … work in business.

A.special sort;

B.out of sorts;

C.all sorts;

 

3. The people within an organization are its human

A.resource;

B.source;

C.force;

4. Human resources has at least two … interpretations depending on context.

A.translated;

B.updated;

C.related;

 

5. The original usage of the term “human resources” derives from

A.political economy and economics;

B.political science and statistics;

C.rural economy and logistics;

 

6. The objective of human resources is to maximize the … on investment from the organization’s human capital and minimize financial risk.

A.turn;

B.return;

C.upturn;

 

7. “Human Resources” means people, plus the … they bring to an organization.

A.skills and experience;

B.wills and confidence;

C.bills and competence;

 

8. The Human Resources department works to ensure that the right people are available to … the company’s needs.

A.set;

B.meet;

C.threat;

 

9. Modern analysis emphasizes that human beings … “commodities” or “resources”.

A.are not;

B.ain’t;

C.are;

10. Human Resources Development is a framework for the … of human capital within an organization.

A.exaggeration;

B.expansion;

C.exaction;

 

Task 9.Odd man out.” In each line cross out a word that in its meaning differs from the others. Explain your choice.

 

1. fixed-term contracts – permanent work – part-time workers;

2. human resources – human being – human capital;

3. political economy – labour – political science;

4. commodities – human beings – resources;

5. hiring – firing – tiring;

 

Task 10. a)The words below are frequently confused. Pronounce the words in each pair and try to explain the differences in their meaning.

 

1. to achieve v [ə`t∫i:v] archive n [`α:kaıv] / [`α:rkaıv];
2. to adopt [ə`dOpt] / [ə`dα:pt] to adapt [ə`dæpt];
3. to deprecate [`deprəkeıt] to depreciate [dı`pri:∫ieıt];
4. to ensure [ın`∫O:] / [ın`∫uər] to insure [ın`∫uə] / [ın`∫uər];
5. effective [ı`fektıv] efficient [ı`fı∫ənt];
6. human [`hju:mən] humane [hju`meın];
7. to live v [lıv] live adj, adv [laıv];
8. morale [mə`rα:l] / [mə`ræl] moral [`mOrəl] / [`mO:rəl];
9. personnel [ֽpə:sə`nel] personal [`pə:sənəl];
10. politic [`pOlətık] / [`pα:lətık] political [pə`lıtıkəl];
11. rich adj [rıt∫] to reach v [ri:t∫];
12. staff[stα:f] / [stæf] stuff [stAf]

b)In Task 10 a) find the English equivalents for:

 

· архів; сховище;

· людський; властивий людині;

· моральний стан; бойовий дух;

· гуманний, людяний; гуманітарний;

· моральний; етичний; повчальний; доброчесний;

· страхувати(ся); застраховувати(ся); забезпечувати;

· сильно заперечувати; виступати проти; протестувати;

· гарантувати, забезпечувати; (по)ручатися; страхувати;

· індивідуальний, особистий, персональний; грам. особовий;

· дійовий, ефективний; умілий, кваліфікований (про людину);

· особовий склад, персонал; кадри (підприємства, установи);

· дієвий, ефективний; чинний, законний, який має силу; фактичний;

· жити; існувати; проживати; харчуватися; вести певний спосіб життя;

· досягати (мети і т.п.); отримувати; успішно виконувати; доводити до кінця;

· апарат; кадри; працівники; персонал; співробітник; співробітники; штат; штати;

· знецінювати(ся), падати в ціні; принижувати, применшувати, недооцінювати, умаляти;

· пристосовувати(ся), адаптувати(ся), переробляти; приганяти, приладжувати(ся); скорочувати і спрощувати;

· матеріал; речовина; речі, майно; ліки; мотлох; нісенітниця; тканина (особл. вовняна); сленг гроші; ставлення, поведінка;

· обміркований, розважливий, доцільний; проникливий, поміркований (про людину); спритний; хитрий; політичний;

· політичний; державний; партійний, вузькопартійний (про підхід тощо); державознавчий; тактичний (про хід у політиці тощо);

· живий; жвавий, діяльний; енергійний; життєвий; реальний; актуальний; що передається в живий ефір (про телепередачу тощо);

· досягати; надходити (до суду); поширюватися (про закон); розповсюджуватися (про дію закону тощо); виносити (рішення, вердикт); укладати (угоду тощо);

· приймати (закон, резолюцію тощо); затверджувати, підтверджувати (заперечну угоду); лінгв. запозичувати (слова з чужої мови); вибирати, добирати, брати на вибір; адоптувати, удочеряти, усиновляти;

· багатий; цінний; розкішний, пишний; рясний; родючий; жирний; здобний (про страву); потішний, кумедний (про подію); яскравий; густий, інтенсивний (про колір); м’який; низький, глибокий (про тон); соковитий (про фрукти); пряний, сильний (про запах).

Task 11. a)Make the difference between the following words.

· To ensure that something will be done means to make it certain to happen: When amending the contract, the lawyer ensuredthat her client received a better deal. · To insure someone or something means to protect the person or object against risk by regularly paying an insurance company a sum of money. In the event the person is injured or killed or the object is damaged or lost, the insurance company will then pay out a sum of money to cover the injury or loss: The company was insuredagainst accidents in the workplace. There is considerable overlap between the meaning and use of insure and ensure. · In both British and US English the primary meaning of insure is the commercial sense of providing financial compensation in the event of damage to property; ensure is not used at all in this sense. For the more general senses, ensure is more likely to be used, but insure and ensure are often interchangeable, particularly in US English: Bail is posted to insure that the defendant appears for trial. The system is run to ensure that a good quality of service is maintained. jQuery(function(){$( "#abc" ).listmenu();});

 

b)Revise the meaning of some derivatives of “SURE”.

· sure[∫O:] / [∫uər] – вірний, безпомилковий; надійний; безпечний; безперечний, певний; упевнений;

· assure[ə`∫O:] / [ə`∫uər] – запевняти; забезпечувати, гарантувати; страхувати (переважно життя);

· ensure[ın`∫O:] / [ın`∫uər] – забезпечувати, гарантувати, (по)ручатися; страхувати;

· insure[ın`∫uə] / [ın`∫uər] – страхувати(ся); застраховувати(ся); забезпечувати;

· reassure[ֽri:ə`∫O:] / [ֽri:ə`∫uər] – відновлювати довіру; заспокоювати; запевняти, переконувати; підбадьорювати; перестраховувати;

· unsure[ֽAn`∫uə] / [ֽAn`∫uər] – ненадійний; небезпечний; невизначений; невпевнений; такий, що вагається;

c)Translate into Ukrainian paying special attention to the words in italics.

 

1.Are you sure these figures are right? 2.No one is really sure why he resigned. 3.The increase in new home sales is a sure sign the recession is over. 4.What is sure is that learning is a complex business. 5.It is impossible to be sure about the value of land. 6.There’s not much more I can say to assure you. 7.She assured me of her support. 8.They assured us that they would not be late. 9.The excellent reviews given to the film have assured its success. 10.“Are you sure the raft is safe?” she asked anxiously. “Couldn’t be safer,” Max assured her confidently. 11.The client must ensure that accurate records are kept. 12.Government must ensure fair and open competition in business. 13.Ensure that it is written into your contract. 14.Our new system ensures that everyone gets paid on time. 15.The company insured itself against a fall of the dollar. 16.Businesses can insure against exchange rate fluctuations. 17.Have you insured the car? 18.He understood her feelings and tried to reassure her. 19.She just reassured me that everything was fine. 20.She was feeling nervous, unsure of herself. 21.I was unsure how to reply. 22.Fifty-two per cent were unsure about the idea. 23.The date is unsure. 24.I am unsure whether I’ll be able to come. 25.If you’re unsure, ask the customer to spell their name.

Task 12.Define which part of speech are the italicized words.

 

1. Work plays a major part in most people’s lives.

2. People of all sorts work in business.

3. The terms businessman and businesswoman refer to a wide range of individuals, from the rich and famous to small company owners.

4. The term describes the combination of traditionally administrative personnel functions with performance, employee relations and resource planning.

5. The objective of human resources is to maximize the return on investment from the organization’s human capital and minimize financial risk.

6. Thus, “Human Resources” means people, plus the skills and experience they bring to an organization.

7. HRD works to ensure that the right people are available to meet the company’s needs.

Task 13. a)Complete all the phrases below with one word.

 

1. to _____ freelance for several employers;

2. _____ plays a major part in our lives;

3. various people _____ in business;

4. they _____ for themselves;

b)Revise the following prepositional phrases:

 

1. to work as a teacher - працювати вчителем;
2. to work in a company - працювати в компанії;
3. to work for a large firm - працювати у великій фірмі;
4. to work for a farmer - працювати у фермера;
5. to work with partners - (спів)працювати з партнерами;
6. to work closely with one’s colleagues - працювати пліч-опліч з колегами;
7. to work side by side with smb. - тісно співпрацювати (з кимось);
8. to work on (a design, etc.) - працювати над (дизайном і т.д.);
9. to work at English (German, Italian etc.) - працювати над англійською мовою (німецькою, іспанською і т.д.);
10. to work under sb. - працювати під чиїмось керівництвом;
11. to work to a man called ... - працювати на людину на ім’я ... (яку звати ...);
12. to work to a university degree - працювати (навчатися) над отриман-ням університетського ступеня
13. to work towards a mutual solution - працювати над розробкою взаємовигідного рішення.

 

c)Use the above phrases in the sentences of your own.

Task 14. a)In the text “Human Resources” (Task 6) find antonyms of the following words.

 

1.minor; 3.biased; 5.unknown; 7.uncommon; 9.uneffective; unproductive;
2.illegal; 4.the poor; 6.unrelated; 8.to minimize; 10.irregular; inconstant.

b)In the text “Human Resources” (Task 6) find synonyms of the following words.

 

1.aim; 2.gain; 3.staff; 4.react; 5.reach; 6.kinds; 7.reject; 8.satisfy; 9.reflects; 10.persons; 11.wealthy; 12.quantity; 13.division; 14.ongoing; 15.precious; 16.pointless; 17.tendency; 18.dismissal; 19.questions; 20.originates; 21.highlights; 22.prominent; 23.discussion; 24.employing; 25.productivity;

 

 

Task 15. a)Match the terms in column A with their definitions in column B.

 

A B
1. freelance 2. recruitment 3. staff appraisal 4. part-time worker 5. staff development 6. fixed-term contract   a)a contract, the duration of which is agreed in advance between the employer and the employee; b)a worker who is not employed by one organization, but is paid for each piece of work he / she does by the organization he / she does it for; c)a periodical advisory and support discus-sion between staff members and management, which also reaches agreements about objectives and the achievement of targets, which are then incorporated in target agreements; d)the act or the process of finding new people to join a company or an organization; e)a person who works only part of the day or week during which people normally work; f)development of skills and abilities (through activities, programmes, and events) to maximise potential and increase productivity; includes identifying, implementing, and evaluating available training and learning needs and programmes;

 

b)Translate into Ukrainian paying special attention to the words in italics.

 

1.Michael Cross is a freelance journalist. 2.Jill was starting to get some freelance writing jobs from trade magazines. 3.She had a baby and decided to go freelance. 4.I work freelance from home. 5.I work as a freelance for magazines and newspapers, write books and teach journalism at university. 6.Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, and selecting qualified people for a job at an organization or firm. 7.As a manager or leader you will no doubt have responsibility for undertaking staff appraisals. 8.Participation in staff appraisal is a contractual requirement for all staff. 9.The systematic analysis of teachers’ needs in relation to professional personal development is becoming widespread as staff appraisal and career review become more structured. 10.Workers are considered to be part-time if they commonly work fewer than 30 or 35 hours per week. 11.According to the International Labour Organization, the number of part-time workers has increased from one-fourth to a half in the past 20 years in most developed countries, excluding the United States. 12.There are many reasons for working part-time, including the desire to do so, having one’s hours cut back by an employer and being unable to find a full-time job. 13.For any employer, employing part-time workers can be an efficient way to keep costs down in areas where you don’t need full-time cover. 14.Most staff developers would agree that the goal of staff development is change in individuals’ knowledge, understanding, behaviors, skills – and in values and beliefs. 15.There may be times when it’s best for your business to take on somebody on a fixed-term contract. 16.Fixed-term contracts give you the advantage of bringing in specific skills and labour as and when they are needed.

 

Task 16. a)Reveal the meaning the words in bold from the following example sentences.

 

  Employing people · to recruit [rı`kru:t] somebody – Many businesses are having trouble recruiting workers with adequate skills. · to hire [`haıə] somebody (especially AmE)If you want to keep growing, hiremore salespeople. · to take on somebody – She was taken on as a trainee last year. · to appoint [ə`pOınt] somebody – A new head of the Environment Agency was appointed last year. · to headhunt [`hedhAnt] somebody – He was headhunted by a major US law firm.

b)Which of the above words means:

 

· приймати (на роботу);

· наймати; орендувати; давати напрокат;

· призначати, затверджувати (на посаді);

· набирати, вербувати (новобранців тощо); комплектувати (частину); поповнювати (ряди, запаси);

· “полювати за талантами” (займатися пошуком управлінського персоналу неформальними методами, переманюючи співробітників інших фірм за рахунок пропонування більш вигідних умов); підбирати високо-кваліфіковані кадри;

Task 17. a)Substitute the italicized words in the passage below for their synonyms from the box. Translate the passage into Ukrainian.

 

check stimuli perform behaviour environment
tactful human payments in charge of misinterpreted

Human Resources may be the most misunderstood of all corporate departments, but it’s also the most necessary. Those who work in Human Resources are not only responsible for hiring and firing, they also handle contacting job references and administering employee benefits.

It’s true that any individual who works in Human Resources must be a “people person.” Since anyone in this department deals with a number of employees, as well as outside individuals, on any given day, a pleasant demeanor is a must.

google_ad_request_done.current_ad_block = 1; google_protectAndRun("ads_core.google_render_ad", google_handleError, google_render_ad); Ten or twenty years ago, Human Resources personnel were rarely seen. Instead they worked behind the scenes to ensure personnel records were in order and employee benefits were being properly administered, but the job stopped there. Today’s Human Resources personnel don’t only handle small administrative tasks. They are responsible for staffing major corporations.

It’s not enough to be able to screen potential employees, however. Those who work in Human Resources also have to be able to handle a crisis in a smooth, discreet manner. A person working in Human Resources must be trusted to keep an employee’s personal details to him or herself.

The Human Resource team must also be a good judge of morale and realize when morale boosting incentives are needed. It’s up to them to make sure all employees are comfortable with their surroundings and working under acceptable, if not above average, conditions.

 

b) Think and answer.

 

1. Why do many people misunderstand the mission of the HRD?

2. What changes happened in the work of Human Resources personnel over the last decades?

3. What training is advisible for those willing to work in the HRD?

4. Have you ever dealt with Human Resources personnel? How did they treat you?

Task 18.Reveal the meaning the words in bold from the following example sentences.

  When employees do something wrong · to dismiss sb [dıs`mıs] – She was dismissed for misuse of company property. · to fire sb [faıə] (more informal) – We fired him for dishonesty. · to removesb [rı`mu:v] (used especially about people with important jobs) – He has been removed from the company’s board. · to sack sb [sæk] (BrE; used informally or in newspapers) – The company sacked its chief executive after a series of poor results.   When employees are no longer needed or a company needs to save money · to make sb redundant (BrE) – More than 100 workers have been made redundant. · to lay sb off [ֽleı `Of]– The company has laid off 200 of its employees. · to terminate sb [`tə:mıneıt] (especially AmE) – They are obliged to compensate terminated employees. · to downsize [`daunsaız] – Big companies are downsizing and increasing their temporary workforce. · to delayer [dı`leıə] (= to reduce the number of levels of management) – Restructuring and delayering have meant redundancies for many experiences people.

b)Study the following definitions.

 

1. to dismiss [dis`mis] sb – to officially remove an employee from their job; (often passive) to force someone to leave their job: Edwards claimed that he had been unfairly dismissed; to dismiss sb for sth: He was dismissed for gross misconduct. to dismiss sb from sth: Jackson was dismissed from her job because of the allegations.
2. to fire [faiə] sb – to make someone leave their job, sometimes as a punishment: She was fired for refusing to comply with safety regulations.
3. to remove [ri`mu:v] sb – to dismiss somebody from their position or job; to take away someone’s power or position, especially in politics: Officials who were involved in the scandal were removed from office.
4. to sack [sæk] sb BrE informal to tell someone they can no longer work at their job: Hundreds of workers are to be sacked at the factory.
5. to make sb redundant [rı`dAndənt] BrE if someone is redundant, they have been told they must leave their job because they are no longer needed: redundant workers. Be made redundant: 5,000 miners were made redundant when the tin market collapsed.
6. to laysboff – to end someone’s employment, especially temporarily, because there is not enough work for them.
7. to terminate [`tə:mıֽneit] sb formal if something terminates, or you terminate it, it ends or you stop it.
8. to downsize [`daunֽsaiz] – to make a company or organization smaller by reducing the number of workers.
9. to delayer [di:`leiə] BrE to reduce the number of levels of management within an organisation.

c)Check your translation.

 

1. to dismiss sb – розпускати; звільняти; знімати з роботи;
2. to fire sb амер. розм. звільнити, вигнати з роботи;
3. to remove sb – усунути; зняти з посади;
4. to sack sb – звільняти (з роботи);
5. to make sb redundant – звільняти (через скорочення штату, згортання виробництва);
6. to lay sb off амер. припиняти роботу (підприємства); звільняти працюючих (зазвичай тимчасово);
7. to terminate sb – завершувати; покласти кінець; звільняти (працюючих);
8. to downsize – скорочуватись (про організацію), зменшуючи штат працюючих;
9. to delayer – реструктурувати (організацію), зменшивши кількість рівнів управління.

 

Task 19.Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the words in italics.

 

1.He was dismissed as incompetent. 2.If you’re late again you’ll be dismissed (from your job). 3.The worker was dismissed for laziness. 4.He’s the person responsible for hiring and firing. 5.Get out! You’re fired! 6.Mr Green was removed from the chairmanship of the club. 7.That officer must be removed from his position. 8.I’ve just been sacked. 9.Any official found to be involved in bribe-taking would be sacked on the spot. 10.My neighbour was made redundant late last year. 11.Eight permanent staff were made redundant. 12.Seventy men at the factory were made redundant because of falling demand for our products. 13.100,000 federal workers will be laid off to reduce the deficit. 14.During the recession they laid us off for three months. 15.The company terminated 25% of its workers. 16.You must know John, Mr Adamson’s putting pressure on me to terminate you. 17.Recession forced many companies to downsize. 18.American manufacturing organizations have been downsizing their factories. 19.Jim is a consultant who’s helped dozens of companies downsize. 20.To delayer means to prune the administrative structure of (a large organization) by reducing the number of tiers in its hierarchy.

 

Task 20. a)Read and translate the passage paying special attention to the words in italics.

 

“Firing” is a common colloquial term in the English language (particularly used in the USA) for termination. It is also often known as being “dismissed”, “sacked” (a term particularly used in countries from the old British Empire), “released”, “discharged”, “canned”, “axed”, “given walking papers”, “let go”, “relieved of duty”, “given a pink slip” or “given one’s P45”.

Dismissal (referred to informally as firing or sacking) is the termination of employment by an employer against the will of the worker. Though such a decision can be made by an employer for a variety of reasons, ranging from an economic downturn to performance-related problems on the part of the employee, being fired has a strong stigma in many cultures.

To be fired, as opposed to quitting voluntarily (or being laid off), is often perceived as being the employee’s fault, and is therefore considered to be disgraceful and a sign of failure.

Finding new employment may often be difficult after being fired, particularly if there is a history of being fired from previous jobs, if the reason for firing is for some serious infraction, or the employee did not hold the job very long. Job seekers will often not mention jobs that they were fired from on their resumés; accordingly, unexplained gaps in employment are often regarded as a red flag.

Vocabulary Notes:

1. to release [rı`li:s] – звільняти, демобілізувати;

2. to discharge [dıs`t∫α:G] – звільняти (з посади); давати розрахунок; відправляти у відставку або в запас;

3. to canамер. розм. звільнити (з роботи); відрахувати (з навчального закладу);

4. to axe [æks] – розм. звільняти, відправляти у відставку;

5. to give walking papers – видати (комусь) документ про звільнення з роботи;

6. to let go – звільнити;

7. to relieve[rı`li:v] of duty – відсторонити (звільнити) від виконання обов’язків;

8. to give a pink slipамер. сленг видати “рожевий аркуш” – повідомлення про звільнення (початково друкувалися на папері рожевого кольору);

9. to give one’s P45брит. сленг сповіщення про звільнення з роботи (в Об’єднаному Королівстві та Ірландії Р45 є кодом посилання на форму під назвою “Дані на працівника, що залишає роботу”. Ця форма складається з багатьох частин. Р45 виписується роботодавцем, коли працівник залишає роботу.);

10. stigma [`stıgmə] – пляма; ганьба; випалене тавро;

11. to quit [kwıt] – кидати (роботу, службу); звільнитися з роботи;

12. voluntarily [ֽvOlən`terəli] – добровільно, за власним бажанням; навмисно;

13. red flag – сигнал небезпеки; червона ганчірка, фактор, який дратує.

Task 21.Translate into English.

 

1.Робота відіграє головну роль у житті більшості людей. 2.У бізнесі працюють різні люди, від найбагатших і відомих до власників малих підприємств. 3.Люди, що працюють на компанію є її людськими ресурсами. 4.Термін “людські ресурси” охоплює традиційні функції управління персоналом, а також взаємостосунки між членами колективу та планування ресурсів. 5.Термін “людські ресурси” має декілька інтерпретацій, в залежності від контексту. 6.У політичній економії людські ресурси традиційно трактуються як один із чотирьох факторів виробництва. 7.Метою людських ресурсів є максимізувати рентабельність інвестицій та зменшити до мінімуму фінансові ризики. 8.Відділ кадрів компанії виконує низку функцій, зокрема планування та вербування нових людей, підготовку кадрів та їхню оцінку. 9.Менеджери, зайняті в управлінні людськими ресурсами зобов’язані здійснювати свою діяльність ефективно, в чесний і законний спосіб. 10.Відділ кадрів повинен забезпечити привернення у компанію людей, які здатні забезпечити досягнення її цілей. 11.Серед експертів точаться суперечки з приводу можливості розглядати людей в організації як капітал і ресурси. 12.Існує думка, що сам термін “людські ресурси” є непотрібним. 13.Традиційний погляд на роботу відділу кадрів, що обмежується наймом та звільненням з роботи працівників давно вважають анахронізмом. 14.Підготовка спеціалістів – це поєднання професійної підготовки і виховання, що загалом гарантує індивідуальне професійне зростання особистості та досягнення цілей компанії.

 

Task 22.Answer the questions.

 

1. What plays a major part in most people’s lives?

2. What terms reflect the diversity of individuals involved in business?

3. What does the term “human resources” describe?

4. What are the two most common interpretations of the term “human resources”?

5. What original usage of “human resources” derives from political economy and economics?

6. Labour is one of four factors of production, isn’t it? What are the other factors?

7. What does more common usage f “human resources” within corporations and businesses refer to?

8. What is the objective of human resources?

9. What are human resource managers in charge of?

10. What are responsibilities of the HRD?

11. How does modern analysis interpret the terms “human capital” and “human resources”?

12. What does the debate regarding “human resources” versus human capital echoe?

13. What interpretation of “human resources” is considered a 20th century anachronism?

14. What view of human capital have most corporate organizations that compete in the modern global economy adopted?

15. What is human resources development? What does it comprise?

 

Task 23.Say what you know about

 

1. Modern views on people working in an organization.

2. Major functions of the Human Resources Department on the current scene.

3. Reasons for which employees may leave their job.

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