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a) The disaster in the Gulf of Mexico proves that the oil industry has failed to _____ appropriate standards of care.
b) Students learned the practical _____ of the theory they had learned in the classroom.
a) I became a teacher because I _____ books and people to politics.
b) He studied chemistry in _____ to physics at university.
a) _____ is the mother of enjoyment.
b) They _____ in their opinions.
a) State _____ of economic life has always been a debatable question.
b) He _____ two PhD students.
a) Time _____ make it impossible to do everything.
b) Agricultural development is considerably _____ by climate.
a) International business includes all business transactions that _____ two or more countries.
b) The problem requires the active _____ of the local governement.
a) She takes pride in stating her political _____.
b) We were able to _____ the students of the need for wider reading.
a) It could take months before this case is _____.
b) We made the _____ to accept their offer.
a) The verbs were _____ into transitive and intransitive categories.
b) Each department will be split into four _____.
a) She kept the company alive when its very _____ was threatened.
b) Opportunities _____ in our company for experienced engineers.
Task 12.A noun or a verb? Define which part of speech are the words in italics in the sentences below.
1. In decision-making there is always some uncertainty and risk.
2. The three levels form a management hierarchy, a structure with a top, middle, and bottom.
3. Middle managers have somewhat less power and responsibility and implement the broad goals set by top management.
4. They need technical and human skills and operate under more constraints than do upper-level managers.
5. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management.
6. Public, private, and voluntary sectors place different demands on managers, but all must retain the faith of those who select them.
7. They must retain the faith of those people that fund the organization.
Task 13. a)Use the prepositions in the box to fill in the blanks in the sentences below.
1. Some basic characteristics seem to apply … managers … all types … organizations; they include hard work … a variety … activities, preference … active tasks.
2. Managers … an organization vary greatly … the things they do and the skills they need.
3. Operating managers need technical and human skills and operate … more constraints than do upper-level managers, who require more conceptual skills and usually rely … their lower-level counterparts to carry … the technical details.
4. Foremen / lead hands have direct supervision … the working force … office, factory, sales field or other workgroup or areas … activity.
5. The responsibilities … the persons belonging … the group of rank and file are even more restricted and more specific than those … the foreman.
6. … the end of the 20th century, business management came to consist … six separate branches.
7. Public, private, and voluntary sectors place different demands … managers, but all must retain the faith … those who select them.
8. If managers fail to convince employees … the advantages … staying rather than leaving, they may tip the organization … a downward spiral … hiring, training, firing, and recruiting.
b) Translate into English paying attention to the use of prepositions.
1.В межах організації; 2.суттєво відрізнятися тим, що вони роблять; 3.діяти в умовах більшої кількості обмежень; 4.покладатися на своїх колег; 5.скидати організацію у штопор падіння; 6.безпосереднє керівництво робочою силою; 7.(ближче) до кінця 20 століття; 8.висувати вимоги до менеджерів; 9.зберегти (не втратити) довіру в тих, хто їх обрав; 10.переконати співробітників у перевагах свого перебування в компанії; 11.віддання переваги активним завданням; 12.застосовуватися до менеджерів у всіх типах організацій; 13.наполеглива праця над низкою заходів (видів діяльності); 14.бути необхідним для менеджерів на вершині (влади); 15.розподіляти менеджмент на функціональні категорії; 16.мислити з точки зору різноманітних процесів; 17.цілі, встановлені вищим керівництвом; 18.причини для прийняття рішень; 19.виконувати технічні деталі; 20.складатися з трьох рівнів; 21.діяти в умовах перепон; 22.у межах організації; 23.сфери діяльності; 24.у такий спосіб.
Task 14.Substitute italicized words and word combinations in the passage below for their sysnonyms from the box.
Depending upon a company’s infrastructure, those in supervisory management may have a lot of power (1), or have relatively little.
It can be frustrating (2) for those in supervisory management who have little power for good or ill (3) over employees. They may truly have the best interest of their employees at heart, but may be unable to enact (4) change if upper level management does not wish for the same changes.
Often those in middle management are the go-betweens (5) for employees and bosses. Frequently they are the unhappy messenger of bad tidings (6) from either employees or heads of company, and employees resenting them often misplace their resentment (7).
Those who are good at supervisory management are best when they can be inspiring (8) to employees and promote good work ethic and increased production.
Many who are employed in supervisory management are never trained (9). However, training can really help a supervisor employ effective strategies in his or her job. Though some people have a natural way (10) with employees, many would perform their jobs more proficiently with training or education.
Task 15. Answer the questions.
1. What are some basic characteristics seem to apply to managers in all types of organizations?
2. Does managing involve decision-making?
3. What is the reason for making a decision?
4. In decision-making there is always some uncertainty and risk, isn’t there?
5. Do managers within an organization vary in the things they do and the skills they need?
6. How many levels does the managerial staff usually consists of?
7. What is a management hierarchy? What does it consist of?
8. Do supervisors or team-leaders belong to upper-level management?
9. At what level do managers have the most power and responsibility?
10. What can help top managers develop the conceptual skills to understand the “big picture”?
11. What tasks do middle managers carry out? What goals do they implement?
12. Whose work do operating managers, or supervisory management, coordinate?
13. At what level do managers need more technical and human skills?
14. Do lower-level managers operate under more constraints than do upper-level ones? Why?
15. What skill do upper-level managers require? Who do they usually rely on in carrying out technical details?
16. Foremen / lead hands have direct supervision over the working force, don’t they?
17. What are the areas of activity of foremen?
18. What are the responsibilities of the persons belonging to the group of rank and file? Are their responsibilities even more restricted and more specific than those of the foreman?
19. How many separate branches did business management come to consist of towards the end of the 20th century? What are they?
20. What is informartion technology management responsible for?
21. Is it easy these days to subdivide management into separate functional categories? Why?
22. Are there processes that simultaneously involve several management categories?
23. Do many scholars tend to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management?
24. How is management often described? Is it really an art?
25. Why is management a very hard job?
26. Do public, private, and voluntary sectors place different demands on managers?
27. What is one common requirement managers must meet regardless of the sector they work in?
28. Management also has the task of innovating and of improving the functioning of organizations, doesn’t it?
Task 16.Say what you know about …
1. Basic characteristics which can be applied to all managers.
2. Levels of management and their distinctive features.
3. Functional categories of management.
4. Management on the current scene.
Task 17.Read and translate the following sayings. Choose one of them to comment on.
1. “Hiring people is an art, not a science, and resumes can’t tell you whether someone will fit into a company’s culture. When you realize you’ve made a mistake, you need to cut your losses and move on.” (Howard Schultz)
2. “The conventional definition of management is getting work done through people, but real management is developing people through work.” (Agha Hasan Abedi)
3. “Management is efficiency in climbing the ladder of success; leadership denermines whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall.” (Stephen R. Covey)
4. “Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.” (Peter F. Drucker)
5. “Good management is the art of making problems so interesting and their solutions so constructive that everyone wants to get to work and deal with them.” (Paul Hawken)
6. “Organization doesn’t really accomplish anything. Plans don’t accomplish anything either. Theories of management don’t much matter. Endeavours succeed or fail because of the people involved. Only by attracting the best people will you accomplish great deeds.” (Colin Powel)
7. “All time management begins with planning.” (Tom Greening)
8. “So much of what we call management consists in making it difficult for people to work.” (Peter F. Drucker)
9. “A good manager is a man who isn’t worried about his own career but rather the careers of those who work for him.” (H.S.M. Burns)
10. “Reduce the layers of management. They put distance between the top of an organization and the customers.” (Donald Rumsfeld)
11. “Management must manage!” (Harold S. Geneen)
12. British management doesn’t seem to understand the importance of the human factor. (Charles, Prince of Wales)
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