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Comparison with other energy sources





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Other implementations

4.6.1 Stationary Electric Power

One characteristic of fuel cell systems is that their efficiency is nearly unaffected by size. This means that small, relatively high efficient power plants can be developed, thus avoiding the higher cost exposure associated with large plant development. As a result, initial stationary plant development has been focused on several hundred kW to low MW capacity plants. [2]

4.6.2 Distributed Generation

Distributed generation involves small, modular power systems that are sited at or near their point of use. The typical system is less than 30 MW, used for generation or storage, and extremely clean. [2]

4.6.3 Auxiliary Power Systems (APU)

Auxiliary power units are devices that provide all or part of the non-propulsion power for vehicles.APU applications may be an attractive market because they offer a true mass-market opportunity that does not require the challenging performance andlow cost required for propulsion systems for vehicles.[2]

4.6.4 Space and Other Closed Environment Power

The application of fuel cells in the space program (1 kW PEFC in the Gemini program and1.5 kW AFC in the Apollo program) was demonstrated in the 1960s. IFCproduced a H2/O2 30 kW unit for the Navy’s Lockheed Deep Quest vehicle. It operates at depths

of 1500 meters (5000 feet). Ballard Power Systems has produced an 80 kW PEFC fuel cell unitfor submarine use (methanol fueled) and for portable power systems. [2]

 

Figure 10 illustrates the practical travel range of a vehicle powered by a fuel cell (FC) compared to lead acid, NiMH or Li-ion batteries. One can clearly see that lead- and nickel-based batteries simply get too heavy when increasing the size to enable larger distances. In this respect, the fuel cell enjoys similar qualities to the IC engine in that it can conquer large distances with only the extra weight of fuel. [14]

 

Fig. 10 - Comparison in energy consumption

 

Fuel cells have less emissions than other types of powerplants, and as believe analytics it would be decreased to extra low values by 2050. (Fig. 11)

 

Fig. 11 – Power Source’s Comparison in terms of emissions and driving range

 

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