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References. The potential for fuel cells to provide zero or near-zero emissions has been a significant force in the development of the technology over the past 30 years





Conclusion

The potential for fuel cells to provide zero or near-zero emissions has been a significant force in the development of the technology over the past 30 years, and is drawing increasing attention to the technology today.

* Because there is no combustion in a fuel cell, fuel is converted to electricity more efficiently than any other electrical generating technology available today.

* There are no moving parts in a fuel cell stack, making them more reliable and quieter than generators. Even the ancillary systems (fans, pumps, controls, etc.) in a complete fuel cell unit are relatively mature and simple technologies that should prove extremely reliable.

* Unlike batteries that must be disposed of once their chemicals are used up, fuel cell reactions do not degrade over time and can theoretically provide continuous electricity.

* Traditional power plants must be large in order to gain efficiency, but fuel cells can achieve higher efficiencies at any scale, making them perfect for small portable, residential, and transportation uses.

* Because fuel cells are clean and efficient at any size, they can be located almost anywhere, including dense urban areas where both air quality and transmission congestion may be of concern. Fuel cells can offer an alternative to building new power lines, while also reducing American dependence on foreign oil. Fuel cells can provide more reliable power wherever electricity is needed, making the whole electric power grid more robust and reliable. Distributed application of small fuel cells will also enhance security of key infrastructures, such as our communication and water systems.

We are currently in a transition period now, where many fuel cell companies are investing literally hundreds of millions of dollars to gear up for mass manufacturing at the same time they are trying to begin to develop a variety of markets for their product. Currently, there is no hydrogen infrastructure to supply coast-to-coast delivery of hydrogen fuel. Technologies are being developed to provide alternative fuel storage and delivery methods.



 


[1] "Fuel cells", http://www.altenergy.org/renewables/fuel_cells.html

[2] "Fuel Cell Handbook", EG&G Technical Services, Inc., 2004

[3] "Automotive Fuel Cells The Road to Emission Free Mobility", Craig Louie, AFCC Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation Corp. Burnaby, Canada

[4] "Fuel Cell Power System for Utility Vehicle", M. Graham, F. Barbir, F. Marken, M. Nadal,Program and Abstracts 1996 Fuel Cell Seminar, November 17-20, 1996, Orlando, FL, pp. 571-574.

[5] "Life-cycle analysis of fuel cell system components", M. Pehnt

[6] "Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles Worldwide". TÜV SÜD Industrie Service GmbH, accessed on August 2, 2011

[7] "Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project", Wipke, Keith, Sam Sprik, Jennifer Kurtz and Todd Ramsden. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, September 11, 2009, accessed on August 2, 2011

[8] "Hydrogen Is Down, But Not Out", Squatriglia, Chuck.,Wired.com, Autopia, March 17, 2011, accessed on August 2, 2011

[9] "Mercedes-Benz Fuel Cell Car Ready for Market in 2014", Lienert, Anita. Edmunds Inside Line, June 21, 2011.

[10] "Fact Sheet: Materials Handling and Fuel Cells". Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association.Accessed August 2nd 2011.

[11] "Early Markets: Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment". U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program, February 2011, accessed August 2, 2011

[12] "The ENV Bike". Intelligent Energy. Retrieved 2007-05-27.

[13] "APFCT won Taiwan BOE project contract for 80 FC scooters fleet demonstration", (http://www.apfct.com/article_cat.php?act=view&no=26)

[14] "Fuel cell vehicles" (http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/article/fuel_cell_vehicles)

[15] "Modeling and control of fuel cell systems and fuel processors", J.T. Pukrushpan, 2003

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