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Target Plan. 1. Historical background of the Ukrainian higher schools; the higher teachers’ training school in Ukraine before the October coup
1. Historical background of the Ukrainian higher schools; the higher teachers’ training school in Ukraine before the October coup.
2. Higher teachers’ training education within the Central Council (Tsentralna Rada) period.
3. Teachers’ training education in Ukraine within the soviet period.
4. Renaissance of the national teachers’ training education in the independent Ukrainian State.
5. Higher teachers’ training education in the USA
6. Higher teachers’ training education system in countries of the Western Europe (France, Great Britain and Germany)
7. Higher teachers’ training education system in Japan, China and South Korea.
The history of the education in Ukraine is closely connected with the history of Ukrainian people. The special role in development of the Ukrainian culture and education was played by the fraternities known as religious organizations. Their history has begun from ancient times. According to some sources such fraternities were founded as early as in the beginning of the XI century, when the members of trade guilds and workshops began to form associations in order to provide mutual aid and unite the parishioners. The ground for origination of two phenomena – the religious polemics and the national education was formed before and after the union of 1956 – the time, when the conflict between Orthodoxy and Catholicism became apparent. The national education formed and spread due to efforts made by religious and national organizations – the fraternities has resulted in development of the religion oriented higher education system.
The Ostrozk Academy is considered to be the first Ukrainian higher educational institution. Prince Ostrozkyi was the first to ‘found the Ostrozk Higher School in his city’. Ivan Ogiienko wrote that the man of state forming view, Prince K. Ostrozkyi developed and began to implement the plan for Ukraine-wide spreading of the education. He promoted the foundation of the religious fraternities in the Ukrainian cities, establishment of schools and sometimes printshops attached thereto. He was the founder of the Ostrozk Academy in the city of Ostrozk. The date of such institution establishment varies upon different sources (1576, 1580 or 1578).
Igor Matsko is considered to be to the date as historian having the most grounded point of view that the Ostrozk Academy was established at the end of 1576 and became the first higher school of the Eastern Slavs.
The Ostrozk Academy is reasonably known to be not only the educational institution for theological scientists, but first of all, the educational institution of the highest type. The type of the school has been discussed for a long time. Whether the Ostrozk Academy was or was not the higher educational institution? ‘The Higher School’ and ‘The Higher Education’ are historically conditioned terms that are to be considered taking into account the historical period (it is spoken about the last quarter of the XVI century).
In order to determine the type of the school it is necessary to consider the following aspects: the purpose of such institution, its structure or organization, the teachers’ staff, the scope of subjects, the level of its teaching, the level of education, participation of the teachers in the scientific and research work and public attitude to the institution’s functioning. Taking into account the above, we can definitely consider the Ostrozk Academy to be the Higher School.
The Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (1615-1817) was the second higher educational institution in Ukraine. The Kyiv Academy has been being formed as the higher school over decades.
In 1632 the Lavra and Fraternity Schools were merged upon insistent requests from the Kyiv public. The new educational institution named as the Kyiv-Mohyla Collegium soon became the real university where the hundreds of the Ukrainian intellectuals had been educated according to the Western cultural model.
At the beginning of the XVIII century there were more than two thousand of students, including the foreign ones who studied in the Kyiv Academy.
The Kyiv Academy was considered to be the real democratic and at the same time elite higher educational institution. There were representatives of different nations and estates who studied in the Academy. The Academy educated famous and outstanding scientists, writers, composers, statesmen and men of religion, and ordinary literate people. The Kyiv-Mohyla Collegium-Academy became an alma mater for six Ukrainian hetmans: Ivan Vygovskyi, Ivan Mazepa, Pylyp Orlyk, Pavlo Polubotok, Ivan Samoilovych and Iurii Khmelnytskyi. Petro Konashevych Sagaidachnyi (1614-1622) was the founder and at the same time student of the Academy. Among the graduates of the Academy were: Grygorii Skovoroda, Dmytro Tuptalo, Oleksandr Bezborodko, Petro Gulak-Artemovskyi, Maksym Berezovskyi, Pylyp Kozatskyi, Dmytro Bortnianskyi and Job Boretskyi – the first principal of the Kyiv Fraternity School, the Metropolitan of Kyiv.
It is evidenced by the researchers that at the beginning of the XVIII century the Latin language was gradually replaced by the Ukrainian language. Such well-known professors of the Academy as Kasian Sakovych, Ptreo Mohyla, Silvestr Kosov, Lazar Baranovych, Ioanykii Galiatovskyi, Dnytro Tuptalo, Inokentii Gizel, Theophanes Prokopovych, Stephen Iavorskyi, Simeon Polotskyi, etc. used both: the Latin and Ukrainian, Polish languages in their literature and journalistic publications and speeches. It is also necessary to know that the most students and professors of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy were Ukrainians who spoke Ukrainian in everyday life.
The ‘spudeis’ of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy studied on the principles of democracy. The newcomers were accepted as the students during the whole academic year, from the first day of September to the beginning of April. There were not any restrictions as to the age of students (from 11 to 24 years old). Duration of the study was 12 years. The academic year was divided into three semesters with appropriate examination upon ending of the each of them. There were three annual short breaks-recreations. The part of students (2/3) was not able to pass successfully the examination. At the end of each semester the students wrote so called wide dissertations being defended in the presence of the other students. Any student studied as long as he wished. Upon mastering of complete educational course or finishing any senior class, the student was given a matriculation certificate signed by the principal or prefect and certified by the seal of Academy. The following was at the disposal of the students: the hospital, dormitory and book store.
From 1701 the Kyiv Collegium was given an official title of the Academy. It was the graduate of the Kyiv Academy, professor in rhetoric - Theophanes Prokopovych who became the principal of the Academy as of 1710. The Kyiv-Mohyla Academy was functioning from 1632 till 1817. At the very beginning of the Russian Academy establishment, there were thirteen Ukrainians – graduates of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy - among twenty academicians.
Development of the higher school in Ukraine was slowed down in XVII-XVIII centuries being conditioned mainly by two factors: the higher school within the territory being the part of Russia was developed under conditions of the absolute Russification, while the higher schools in regions being the parts of Poland, Austria-Hungary and Romania were subjected to Polonization, Gremanization and Romanization of the population, accordingly.
An important role of the education development within Western Ukraine was played by the Lviv University, despite it was established (in 1661) for the purpose of intensification of the Polonization among the Ukrainian population.
The Lviv University is known to be the oldest classic university of Ukraine. The date of its establishment is differs depending of the various sources. It is considered that it was founded in 1661.
It was the Scientific Association n.a. T. Shevchenko headed by M. Grushevskyi that played an important role in the development of the Ukrainian science. Materials of the Lviv University were published in Polish language. There were four departments in the Lviv University before the First World War: Theological, Philosophical (restructured in the 20-s into the department of humanities and mathematics & environment), Law and Medical ones. The struggle for establishment of the independent and autonomous Ukrainian university has begun from the end of XIX century.
The lecturers’ and teachers’ staff of the University was represented by notable historians: Ivan Krypiakevych, Stepah Tomashevskyi and Mykhailo Grushevskyi – famous professor of the Ukrainian history and a head of the Scientific Association n.a. T. Shevchenko.
The Kharkiv University being the first educational institution at the Ukrainian territory belonging to the Russian Empire was established at the end of January, 1805.
The scientists of the University were in charge of publishing the almanacs, ethnographic bulletins and other Ukrainian language editions. To some extent it was favored due to the University Regulations (as of 1863), according to which the Russian universities have been provided with partial autonomy. However, upon murder of tsar Oleksandr, the Second in 1881, such liberal attitude was cancelled. The new Regulations (as of 1884) cancelled all privileges for the said educational institutions, thus resulting in its direct and full subordination to the Ministry of Education. From that time, no principals, deans and even professors had a chance to be elected: the universities were supervised by civil servant – the county supervisor. At the same time, the rights of the professors’ councils were also limited. The new university regulations were adopted in Russia only upon the known revolutionary event, in 1905. At this time the Kharkiv University had become a center of The Ukrainian national and democratic movement. According to some data, it was professor D. Bagalii who had already used the Ukrainian language for his lectures just at that time. I. Franko and M. Grushevskyi were given the academic degrees by the academic council of the University. After 1917 the University was reorganized into the Academy of Theoretical Studies, and lately – into the University of the People’s Education that was given the name after Professor O. Potebnia.
The Kyiv University was established on July 15th, 1834. It was founded on the resource basis of the Kremenets Lyceum closed in 1831 because of Polish students taking part in the armed insurrection against tsarism. From the very beginning the educational institution had the only one department of philosophy. There were two divisions – historical and physicomathematical ones. The lecturers’ and teacher’s staff was represented by Polish, Russian and German professors. The most teachers of the Kremenets Lyceum were the Polish. Mykhailo Maksymovych (1804-1873) was appointed as a principal of the Kyiv University.
Formation of the Kyiv University as the educational institution was accompanied by significant obstacles; the educational process was interrupted many times.
However, even under such difficult conditions, the University succeeded in providing the education for a lot of notable and recognized scientists: Volodymyr Antonovych (1834-1908) – a historian, archaeologist, ethnographer and founder of the historical society; Dmytro Bagalii (1857-1932) – a notable historician of the XX century who researched the works of T. Shevchenko and I. Franko; Mykhailo Dragomanov (1841-1895) – a columnist, historian, expert in literature and folklore, economist, philosopher, public figure and cultural worker, graduate and teacher of the named University; and Mylhailo Starytskyi (1840-1904) – the Ukrainian writer, public figure and cultural worker. Among the teachers of the said University there were V. Vernadskyi and D. Trave. I.Turgeniev, D. Mendielieiev and M. Zhukovskyi were the permanent members of the Kyiv University.
The Odesa University (1865) was established as Novorosiiskyi one on the basis of the Richelieu Lyceum that was functioning in Odesa as of 1814. From the very beginning of establishment, the University has history & philological, physicomathematical, law and medical departments. The establishment of the Odesa University was initiated by famous scientist and educator M. Pyrogov, M. Mohylianskyi and Governor-general P. Stroganov. In 1945 it was named after Illia Mechnikov. There were a lot of scientists among the teachers’ staff and graduates of the University: Illia Mechnikov (1845-1916) – a notable biologist, professor of zoology and comparative anatomy of the Novorosiiskyi University in Odesa; Danylo Zabolotnyi (1866-1929) – famous Ukrainian microbiologist and epidemiologist, one of the originators of domestic scientific epidemiology; Oleksadr Bogomolets (1881-1946) – notable Ukrainian pathophysiologist, academician (as of 1929) and a President (as of 1930) of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR; graduate of the medical department of the Novorosiiskyi University (1906).
The Chernivtsi University (1875) was established as educational institution with German language teaching; however, subdepartments of the Ukrainian language and literature were available from the very beginning of its functioning. In 1918-1920 the University was reorganized in Romanian one; the Ukrainian subdepartments were abolished with significant reduction of the Ukrainian students number. I. Franko and Les Martovych were among the students of the said University. Upon joining of Bukovyna region to the Ukrainian SSR in 1940, the University was reorganized. The number of departments was increased up to seven, while from 1995 – up to thirteen. The number of subdepartments came to more than fifty.
The higher teachers’ training education was developed by passing through the following stages: 1804-1917 – formation of the teachers’ training education; 1917-1920 – active search of the scope, forms and methods for the formation of the new higher teachers’ training education under different models of the state power; 1921-1934 – formation and intensive training of the national teachers’ staff; 1935-1985 – approval of the common all-USSR system of the higher teachers’ training education. Unification of its scope, forms and methods; the next stage: development of the new national higher school upon the principles of democracy. The problem of the teachers’ staff availability was firstly stated in Russia in 1803-1804 that was conditions by the school reform. Despite of the clergy’s requirements to endue the preference for replacement of the teachers by the clergymen who were not generally or specially trained, the three-year teachers’ training institutes of closed type were established as attached to the University. All students of the University were taught the certain educational course with following continuation of studies in ‘the central department of sciences according to the future specialties’. Those who prepared themselves for teaching entered the teachers’ training institute. The students were trained for teaching all subjects in gymnasia. Professors of the University had to devote at least one hour per week to ‘the special exhortation for the teachers’ personnel’. The students’ studying process was supervised by the principal of the teachers’ training institute. Such institutes were established in 1811 as attached to the Kharkiv, while in 1834 – attached to the Kyiv University. It was stipulated by the institute that the future teachers may be trained only through the comprehensive lectures. The future educator should know about the progressive development of all known scientific systems and theories, have the skills in independent work and the scientific research; and abilities for proper and understandable teaching the subjects. Therefore, a special attention was paid in the institutes to cultivation of the skills in teaching among the students. The professor’s and teacher’s staff of the University was in charge of development of the students’ oratory art and abilities for clear and proper statement of the thoughts; required the oral and written reporting of materials being of great importance for the future pedagogical activities. The number of students of each institute was 24. The graduates of such institute were obliged to work as teachers for at least six years. Despite of the fact that the teachers’ training institutes prepared rather well trained teachers having the clear professional interests (and continuously growing demand in such teachers), the said institutions had been existed only by the end of the 50-s of the XIX century.
The teachers’ training institutes were replaced by the educational courses. In November, 1858 all universities opened two-year teachers’ training courses for persons having the degree in higher education and wishing to devote themselves to the pedagogical activities.
Through the said courses, the Kyiv University trained the teachers of physics, mathematics, history, geography and Russian language for secondary schools. All the students of the University were to study logic, psychology, history of Pedagogics and fundamental didactics.
The teachers and educators of the highest qualification were trained during the higher courses for females, and as well in the teachers’ training institutes. Especially for females representing the intellectuals’ organization ‘The Young Childhood Friends Society’ in Kyiv there was established the two-year Frebel’s teachers’ training institute (September, 1907).
It shall be mentioned that there were cutting and sewing, fancywork and housekeeping courses attached to the institute. The annual fee for the study was 60 karbovantsiv. Also there was the one-year ‘nursemaid school’ attached to the institute.
The teachers for gymnasium were trained in the Nizhyn University of History and Philosophy n.a. Prince Bezborodko established in 1875 on the basis of the law lyceum. Firstly, the number of students made up to 100 persons, while 40-42 during the next years. The duration of study was four years: two years of the theoretical and further two years – of the practical studies.
The pre-revolutionary higher teachers’ training education did not assume the studies by correspondence, however, there was available the study for an external degree. As a results of the teachers’ training education system, in 1872 there were established the three-year teacher’s institutes being in charge of training of the specialists for the municipal, while from 1912 – the higher primary colleges. There were two of them in Ukraine in 1880: in Glikhiv (1874) and Feodosia (1972). These ones provided for training of the general type teachers. Anyone having different positions and degrees may be accepted as the student as of age of 16 years. The students studied the Holy Bible, Russian language, arithmetic, geometry, geography, natural history, pedagogy and didactics, music and gymnastics. There was not clear specialization; the psychology was not included into curriculums, while the pedagogy and didactics were taught only two hours per week. The teachers’ institutes did not stand for the higher education and the right of entering the university. By the state on January 01st, 1917, the teachers were trained only by seven teachers’ institutes: Kyiv (established on June 01st, 1909); Vinnytsia (established on July 01st, 1912); Chernygiv (established on July 01st, 1916); Glukhiv (established in 1874), Katerynoslav (established in 1910); Mykolaiiv (established in 1913) and Poltava (established in 1914). However, the number of students in said institutes was insignificant.
The period from 1917 to 1920 is considered to be the period of the Ukrainian higher teachers’ training education system formation.
On June 26th, 1917, the General Secretariat headed by I. Steshenko (permanent Minister of the Public Education of the UPR as of January 12th, 1918) adopted the declaration specifying the main program of the national education development, and as well of the teacher’s staff training. In spite of the hard living conditions, there were two Ukraine-wide teachers’ congresses held at that time (in April and August), and as well Ukraine-wide professional congress (August 13-15th, 1917), in the course of which there were made a decision on directions for the national education development and the Ukrainian teachers’ environment organization. From the time of declaration of the independence of Ukraine it was something done, in particular as concerned organization of the national specialists training process. So, by the decision of the scientific society and the Kyiv Cooperative Committee as of October 05th, 1917 there was established the Kyiv Ukrainian Public University having the structure of three departments: historical and philological, physicomathematical and law, and as well the preliminary courses. The total number of students was 1,400. The University was headed by Professor I. Ganytskyi. The lectures were held in the Saint Volodymyr’s University.
It was a time, when the following institutions commenced its activities: the Kyiv Teachers’ Training Academy (from November 07th, 1917) that trained the teachers of Ukraine-specific studies; the Ukrainian State University (from July 01st, 1918 – in Kamianka-na-Podilli) with initial number of 493 put on the roll students; the Ukrainian Branch of the Kyiv Higher Teachers’ Training Institute of the Frebel’s Society (S. Rusova was the first to take a position of its principal); and moreover, the department of history and philosophy established by the ‘Enlightenment’ (Prosvita) Society’ in Poltava. Because of changing the state power in 1919 in favor of the Soviet Government, there was initiated the reform of the teachers’ training education and establishment of the higher teachers’ training school in Ukraine. The task was to prepare not ordinary teachers, but the teacher’s personnel of the new generation. The People’s Commissariat for Education of Ukraine worked out the special regulations for reorganization of the educational process in the teacher’s seminaries and institutes. The main provisions of the said regulations were: familiarization with the history of the revolutionary movement, the history of the socialism formation, introduction of the manual labor, fine arts, Ukraine-specific studies; familiarization with the most practical methods of the educatees’ skills research, development of the love for productive work among the future teachers; familiarization with theoretical and practical methods for establishment of self-administration within the schools.
On May 21st, 1919 there was established the commission for reformation of the teachers’ training educational institutions represented by educator and expert in methodology O. Muzychnko and principal of the Kyiv Teachers’ Institute K. Shcherbyna. The activity of the teachers’ training higher educational institutions were directed to be based on the materials of the Moscow session on the issues of the teachers’ training (August 18025th, 1918). Some certain Governmental decrees removed the legal restrictions for getting the higher education. The higher school became available for all working people. The said issues were solved in Ukraine by the Council of Workers and Peasants Defense, the members of which attended Chernigiv in connection with Denikin’s Army attack against Kyiv. The Council of Defense permitted the establishment of the teachers’ training institutes in Chernigiv (September, 1919), Poltava (June, 1919), Kherson (July, 1919) and Zhytomyr (October, 1919). It was assumed by the Council that the lower is level of the school, the more serious and intensive shall be the teachers’ training process.
In order to make the teachers available for any types of schools, the higher educational courses for females, the teachers’ institutes and seminaries, in 1920-1021 there was approved the new form of the higher educational institution – the Institute of Public Education.
Implementation of the new organizational forms and methods for the teachers’ training was the next phase of the education development in Ukraine (1921-1928).
The First Ukraine-wide session on education issues was held in summer 1922. Following the session, namely on November 22nd, 1922 the Government adopted a decree ‘On putting into force the Code of Laws on the Public Education’ and specified the structure, objective and the system of the public education in Ukraine. There were 995,505 pupils studying in 12,710 schools in January, 1992. In 6,105 schools the lessons were given in Ukrainian; in 1,966 – in Ukrainian and Russian; in 119 – in Hebrew; in 102 – in Polish and in 280 – in other languages. The teachers for Jewish schools were trained in colleges of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr and Odesa.
Pursuant to the said Code, the special subject-based commissions represented by the teachers and the students were appointed in the higher educational institutions in 1923. Thereof objective was the preparation of curriculums and the new methods of teaching. The higher school administration included the special offices, in the structure of which there was a commission in charge of the discipline control. The activities of all higher educational institutions was conducted pursuant to the interim regulations assuming three forms of the control: the current – checking of the attendance, the regular – credits for checking of the necessary minimum of knowledge level, and the individual one (from the side of the control and methodological commission). The main form of studies were the lectures, practical classed and practice.
The interim regulations were known to be the primary regulative document of the higher teacher’s training institution that determined all spheres of its activities. Lately, in June of 1927, the Government approved the Regulations on the Institutes of the Ukrainian SSR.
The second and third Ukraine-wide conferences on pedagogical education issues (July 22-28th, 1923 and October 27th, 1923) played a significant role in formation and development of the higher teacher’s training education. In the time of the said conferences the following issues were actively discussed: improvement of the teachers’ staff quality, review of the pedagogical educational institutions chain.
The further development of the Ukrainian higher teachers’ training education was influenced upon decisions of the Party sessions on the public education issues, in the time of which there were discussed the problems of the teachers’ staff training, and as well upon decisions of the all-USSR session of the People’s Commissars for Education made on issues as to coordination of the organizational forms for the educational activities (1924). Significant growing of demand in the teachers was conditioned by implementation of the mandatory primary and seven-year general education.
The period from 1923 to 1928 is known for Ukrainization of the teachers’ training educational institutions in Ukraine. Each higher educational institution was instructed by the People’s Commissariat for Education of Ukraine as to the final terms of entire Ukrainization (in particular, for the teacher’s training institutes: within 1927-1928). The teachers not able to teach in Ukrainian were dismissed.
Within the said period, in particular from 1922, the institutes set the scholarship, the amount of which was defined according to the zone coefficient: the 1st zone – Kharkiv – 27 karbovantsiv; the 2nd zone – Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Lugansk and Zaporizhzhia – 24 karbovantsivl the 3rd zone – Odesa and Mykolaiiv – 23 karbovantsiv; the 4th zone – all regional cities – 21 karbovanets; and the 5th zone – settlements out of the regional cities – 19 karbovantsiv. However, this scholarship was not granted to all students.
1928 was the starting point for establishment of the administrative and command system, (1928-1941), formation of I. Stalin personality cult. This period was characterized by the wild outburst of the Stalin’s pedagogy when there were anathematized not only sociology and cybernetics, pedagogics and psychology, genetics and paedology, but also creativity, initiative and pedagogical independence.
In 1929 there was initiated ‘the wide-front offensive from the side of socialism’; there were set the tasks for providing the total literacy of the population by the end of the first five-year period, implementation of the mandatory primary four-year education of the children, changing the language of teaching in comprehensive school for the native one, significant increase of the schools and accordingly, the teachers. Education and the teacher’s educative activities became more controllable from the side of the Bolskeviks’ Party.
Therefore the period from 1931 to 1933 is considered to be the time of establishment of the common system of the national teachers’ training education. During 1933-1934, the part of the social nurture and professional education institutes was reorganized into the teacher’s training institutes assuming the four-year duration of study (Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odesa and Nizhyn). Also there were the teachers’ institutes attached to the institutes and established on the basis of well equipped pedagogical colleges for training the teachers for V-VII forms.
Thus, beginning from 1935-1936 there were established two types of the educational institutions representing the system of the higher teachers’ training education in Ukraine: the teachers’ training and the teachers’ institutes.
The Governmental decree as of September 19th, 1932 ‘On educational programs and order in the higher schools and colleges’ paid attention to the such drawbacks of the higher school, in particular, of the pedagogically-oriented ones, as: organization of the teaching & educational process and teachers’ practice, availability of highly qualified scientists and selection of the teaching methods. Therefore, the curriculums were significantly amended, namely by approval of longer time for the teaching practice, pedagogics and methods; detail specification of the subjects. The special attention was paid to the mastering of the new educational methods, training of the specialists having wide social and political views.
It was important that at least one day during the V, VI, and VII semesters, and two days during the VII semester were set for the students’ self-work. Despite of the fact that generally all curriculums were improved, they had some drawbacks yet: poor attention was paid to the training of the teacher-educator and forming of his intelligence and culture.
The development of the higher teachers’ training education was influenced by a discussion (1929-1930) on the issues related to pedagogy, paedology, psychology and reflexology, main problems of didactics, the role of environments and heredity, etc. Such discussion to some extent activated the psychological and pedagogical training process for the future specialists, although it did not solve many of the complex problems of the school and the higher teachers’ training education progress. The said questions were examined in the time of the Ukrainian Republic-wide scientific conference on pedagogy and psychology issues (1940) and the all-USSR conference on pedagogical sciences issues (1941).
During 1940-1941 there were 281 (6.6%) professors and 558 (13.2%) PhDs and associate professors employed in the teachers’ training higher educational institutions. More than 80% (3,338 persons) of the institute teachers have no any academic degree and title. The level of teaching in the teachers’ training institutes was no so good. The higher level was revealed within the university systems and teachers’ training institutions of Kyiv and Kharkiv.
According to the decree of the USSR Government as of April 09th, 1936 ‘On increase of wages for teachers and the other school employees’, the financial condition of the teachers became equal to the same of engineers and technicians. The growth of the V-VII form teachers’ wages came to 99.1%, while of the VIII-X form teachers’ wages – up to 136.1%. Therefore, the period from 1928-1941 became the period characterized by the search and selection for the educational institution providing for successful training of the secondary school teacher. Under conditions of the administrative and command system the teachers’ staff training was based upon the system principle (the universities, teachers’ training and teachers’ institutes); there was a trend for nihilistic attitude for preservation and enlargement of the national wealth – the language and the culture.
The following years (1941-1945) became the period of the teachers’ personnel training in the time of the Great Patriotic War. The Nazis considered the Ukrainians to be the primitive race being not entitled even for education.
The curriculums and educational programs were revised because of the war. The All-USSR Committee on the Higher School items implemented the curriculums with reduced terms of study – three and a half years – for the universities and three years – for the institutes. Despite of the war and unsatisfactory condition of the premises (pillaged rooms and laboratories, the lack of educative and methodological documents) in 1943 there were 13 teachers’ training and teachers’ institutes that just began to educate the personnel. The studying conditions were unfavorable; advancement in studies was poor.
By the end of 1943 there were 25 teachers’ training educational institutions (3 universities, 10 teachers’ training and 12 teachers’ institutes) in the liberated cities of Ukraine. The total number of the students came up to 6,966, including 3,935 freshmen. The professors’ and teachers’ staff was represented by 581 persons. Because the lack of personnel, there were established the special educational courses: four months – for training of the I-IV form teachers (21,000) and six months – for the V-VII form teachers training (4,470).
Despite the intent to increase the number of persons to be accepted as the students, however it was difficult to reach the pre-war level. All teachers’ training institutes established four-month courses and departments for studies by correspondence. Plan of the People’s Commissariat for Education of Ukraine assumed the issuance of: curriculums, educational programs and methodological guides for correspondence students of the teachers’ training and teachers’ institutes. Moreover, there were established departments for studies by correspondence and scientific methodology offices attached to the higher school administration. Ia. Riapko was the first to be appointed as the director of the above. The chain of the higher teachers’ training educational institutions was renewed within 1944-1945. It was impossible to re-establish only four teachers’ training and six teachers’ institutes, the resource basis of which was completely destroyed by fascists.
The said period is characterized by prevailing of philological, physicomathematical and historical departments; however, departments for training of the teachers of esthetic cycle and physical education were not available.
During 1944-1945 academic year there were renewed 6 universities, 20 teachers’ training and 17 teacher’s institutes with total number of students coming to 23,792. The teacher’s training educational institutions did a lot to organize the teaching & educative process and improve the system of the teachers’ staff training.
The period from 1941 to 1945 was the time of gaining the experience, thus enabling to make progress in development and improvement of the higher teachers’ training education during the post-war period. There was formed the new teachers’ training school known for active training of the teachers able to teach and educate the growing generation under unfavorable conditions of the post-victory period.
Following the Great Patriotic War there was began the period of the Ukrainian higher teachers’ training education recovery and development (1945-1961). There is none of analogues known to the world history as to the so scaled recovery works perfumed in our country. The direct damages caused by the Nazis and their henchmen to Ukraine made up to 285 billion karbovantsiv or 42% of the total USSR costs for the period of war and invasion. The commission established by the Ukrainian Government has calculated that the renewal of the teachers’ training educational institutions of Ukraine should require involvement of 15,550 builders having professional competence in 13-15 different fields.
The program of the social, economical and cultural development of Ukraine within the post-war period was defined by ‘The Law on the five-year plan for economy recovery and development for 1946-1950’ adopted by the eight session of the Supreme Council of Ukraine in August, 1946.
Meanwhile the new problems were originated by the reality. According to the CPSS program of ‘the communism development’ (1961), there was set the task for implementation of the mandatory secondary comprehensive and polytechnic education for all children of school-going age, and for the youth without appropriate education working within the economical sector; and moreover, for development of the boarding schools and after-school daycare institutions. According to the above, a problem of training of additional 183,600 teachers for the period from 1962 to 1970 became apparent. Even in Kyiv, the deficit of teachers for the 1970-1971 period, in particular of physics, mathematics, Ukrainian language and biology, was estimated as to be 306 persons.
In total there were 20 double specialties introduced within the Ukrainian teachers’ training higher educational institutions. The main principle of the new departments organization was based upon thereof establishment in every educational institution disregarding the demands for the said personnel in certain regions.
In 1963 there was founded a Crimea Schoolchildren’s Minor Academy ‘Searcher’. It was the first institution of such type in the country having the physicomathematical, environmental & chemical and social studies sections. In order to improve the level of the comprehensive education among the working and rural youth and to create the conditions for entrance to the teachers’ training institutes, in 1969 there were renewed the departments for permanent daily, evening and correspondence preliminary preparation for the studies.
Following the declaration of the independence of Ukraine there was initiated the search of the national education development ways and the transition to the continuous professional education. It has become evident that the low level of professional competence and general culture of the most part of population, in particular of the youth affects not only competitiveness of the country within the global market, but also the level of the social stability.
The higher education system of Ukraine has been being formed as one of the most important values of the statehood, social consciousness and national security.
Like anywhere in the world, the standards of the professional education in Ukraine to the date are known to be in the process of upgrading, development, review and approbation. There are adopted governmental documents (‘Law on Education’, 1996, ‘National Education Program (Ukraine in the XXI century)’, 1992, ‘National Doctrine for Development of Ukrainian Education in the XXI century’, 2001) aimed to the reformation of the higher education pursuant to the world standards. The higher education is based upon principles of democratization, humanization, humanitarization, ethnicization, differentiation and individualization.
The ‘National Doctrine for Development of Ukrainian Education in the XXI century’ defines the goal, priorities and principles of the education development. The main objective of the Ukrainian education system is to create the conditions for development and self-actualization of each personality among the citizens of Ukraine being able to study for life.
The National Education Program ‘Ukraine in the XXI century’ stipulates the following strategic targets for the higher education reformation:
- Transition to the flexible and dynamic level-based system of the specialists training, thus enabling to satisfy demands and actualize the opportunities of the personality in getting the certain education and qualification levels according to selected specialty and available skills;
- Creation of the higher educational institution chain according to educational and qualification levels, types of educational institutions, forms and duration of the study and the sources of financing that would satisfy the interests of the personality, demand of each region and the state on the whole;
- Improvement of the educational and cultural level of the society;
- Bringing the Ukrainian higher education up to the level of developed world countries achievements and its integration into the international scientific and educational community.
Beginning of the third millennium is notable for the education globalization. Joining of Ukraine to the Bologna process assumes deeper familiarization with the worldwide experience, in particular of the USA and countries of the Western Europe.
THE HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES – is the strict system similar to the secondary education system. The higher education a variety of elements interconnected on rather random and conditional basis. Such elements are subjected to continuous modifications, changing of the purpose and title, to say nothing of thereof number and geographical position.
Administration of the higher education in the United States is decentralized as pursuant to the 10th Amendment to the US Constitution, the entire educational system is subordinated to the authorities of the individual states. On a governmental scale, the administration is exercised by the Educational Agency being the unit of the US Department of Health and Human Services. However, the term ‘Administration’ can be applied only partially as the Agency’s functions are limited rather to accumulation and processing of the information (statistic data) incoming from authorities of states and the educational institutions.
However, the quota in state budget allocated for development is being continuously increased. It makes up to 10% of the total higher schools budgeting, while the rest amount consists of allocations to the states and different private donations.
Accreditation of the higher educational institutions is known to be of great importance, especially if the common program and methodological center of the higher education does not exist. The accreditation assumes determination by certain governmental or public bodies (often both of them) of how and to what extent the certain standards are met by each individual educational institution. More than 30 regional and professional offices approved by the Educational Agency are involved to the accreditation process. The accreditation may be provided either for entire educational institution, or for certain specialties. The general accreditation is provided by the regional commissions, while the accreditation by certain specialties – by professional accreditation offices. All accreditation costs connected with servicing of the educational institutions and payment of remuneration for involvement of the highly qualified experts are borne by the higher educational institution to be accredited. However, such accreditation is beneficial only for the educational institutions that do not anticipate negative findings from the side of the commission. Therefore, the educational institutions always indicate the valid accreditation data in their advertising booklets.
The College is the term generally used for identification of the type of the higher educational institution in the United States. The College may be the autonomous higher educational institution with two or four-year duration of study; however, it ma be the structural unit of the university.
There are no common rules for organization of the studies and the educational process on the whole in the US higher educational institutions. Duration of the academic year is from mid September till the end of May. Apart from the summer holidays, there are three one-month vacation periods during the academic year. However, the latter is upon each student. No additional holidays are used by those who wish to graduate from the higher educational institution as soon as possible. Apart from self-work the student may take part in the work of the summer schools in order to get the certain credit units. 20% of the courses are considered to be as selective, while the others are optional. The selective ones are creditable, while the optional ones are not considered as the credit hours.
The weekly studying capacity in the US higher educational institutions (the lectures) is 16-24 hours for the junior students and 14-16 hours – for the senior students. However, any one hour lecture shall be followed by at least two hours of the self-work. If the student plans to get 16-18 credit units during the semester (each credit unit consists of three hours per week), the weekly capacity shall be 48-54 hours. The standard duration of the lectures and practical classes is 50-60 minutes. Each lesson assumes the formation of the new group as the courses are mainly of selective nature. Therefore, the registration department being in charge or scheduling uses the computer as it does not able to schedule the students’ mode of work taking into account the optimal time planning.
Requirements to the US school students’ advancement in studies are not considered to be the high; also there is no common system for advancement recording. As a rule, the grade point average (1.7) is enough to be given an academic degree of Bachelor. Minimum grade point average for the first-year students is 1.3. There is an alphabetic system of grades added by written interpretation and numerical value.
À– Excellent, 4-point grade;
B– Good, 3-point grade;
C– Satisfactory, 2-point grade;
D– Unsatisfactory but admissible, 1-point grade;
E– Inadmissible, 0-point grade.
At the same time, the percentage of the students sent down from the US higher educational institutions is rather high and makes up to 30-40% of the total number of the accepted first-year students. This is conditioned not only by poor progress in studies, but also by the need to pay for education.
There are 2-3 tests during one semester that are to be checked by the senior students. The results of the current checkup are taken into account in the time of calculation of the grade point average for advancement in each subject. As a rule, the grade given for the post-program examination is more than a half of the summarized grade.
Examination sessions in the US higher educational institutions are rather short (10-12 days) and called as ‘Review, tutorial and classes period’. The classes are held within 5 days per week. All the higher educational institutions, especially the prestigious ones are perfectly equipped – they are provided with all educational technical facilities (slide, film projectors and episcopes), and educational television. The electronic computers are widely used, even for the personnel selection.
There are different levels of the higher educational institutions in the structure of the teachers’ training education: the universities (4-5 years), the teachers’ training colleges (4-5 years), the liberal art colleges (4 years) and the junior colleges (2 years). The first three stated above types of the educational institutions are in charge of training of the teachers for secondary schools, while the junior college – of the teachers for primary school. There are teachers’ training institutions with state and private ownership. The most famous universities in charge of the teachers’ staff training are: Ball State University (State of Indiana); Northern Illinois University (State of Illinois); Michigan University (State of Michigan) and Philadelphia University (State of Pennsylvania).
The most future teachers study for four years (70%), less than one third – for five years, while the others – for two years.
In the framework of the four-five year training system, the first two years of study are devoted to the studying of the comprehensive subjects, mainly the humanities: economy, philosophy, literature, history, political and social science, and so forth. It is assumed that mandatory and elective courses are combined. The program also includes the studying of the psychological and pedagogical subjects (general pedagogical psychology, human development psychology, fundamental education, nurture philosophy, history of pedagogy, pedagogical sociology, comparative pedagogics, teaching methods and pedagogical ethics). The said subjects are studied within 25-35% of the educational time. The structure of knowledge to be gained by the future teacher includes the comprehensive knowledge, specific knowledge (for example, the scientific research methods) and behavior-based sciences (theory of behavior, ideal, normal and abnormal behavior).
Apart from the lectures and workshops, the following unconventional methods and forms of teaching are applied: modeling, role-playing games and micro-teaching. In the course of modeling and role-playing games, the students may represent the school class. The micro-teaching is creation of the small-scale situation inclusive of all teaching components. For example, the students teach 10-15 lessons for the minor groups of pupils; such lessons are recorded by video camera with following thereof viewing and discussion. Such unconventional teaching approaches shall prepare the students for active and independent pedagogical activities.
Practice and professional trials are considered to be the important parts of the teachers’ training education. The pedagogical practice in the universities lasts for 4-5 weeks. The practice in the teachers’ training colleges is foreseen during each year of study. The pedagogical practice program includes the observation over the teaching & educational process, analysis of teaching methods, in particular lessons (from one to the series of lessons). The school practice is supervised by specially trained teachers.
The computer testing is widely used in the time of examination. The computer based certification is divided into several phases. Such tests are used for determination whether the first-year students gained enough basic knowledge or whether they properly chose the future profession. During the next to the last year the students answer the questions as to comprehensive educational and pedagogical issues. Finally, the graduates are proposed to check the academic and pedagogical knowledge and skills (for example, in the time of analysis of the situation that the school teacher might be faced with).
The upgrading of the teachers’ professional skills is foreseen by the federal programs, and as well at the level of individual states and educational institutions. So, the government grants the scholarships to the teachers who are in charge of the scientific researches. Those who distinguished themselves are invited for state reception in a White House. In the framework of the improvement of the professional advancement, the schools apply the following methods and forms of work: joint attendance and discussion of the lessons, advising of the young teachers by experienced educators, and activities of the teachers’ societies assuming the exchange with methodological experience, work in pedagogical teams, the members of which make use of the professional training, mutual evaluation of work, etc.
Duration of the students’ pedagogical practice in the school is 14 weeks. It includes the observation over the pedagogical process and some lessons to be taught under the teacher’s supervision. In order to complete with education upon graduation from the teachers’ training colleges, the students shall work on probation within one year at the place of employment. The USA has recently approved the document ‘America 2000’ stipulating the standards (voluntary). These are the following: the scope of education, the quality of the knowledge adoption and material security of the schools.
It is stated in the deed ‘Objectives 2000: Well-Educated America’ that by 2000 all the US pupils will have taken the first place in the world as to mastering the mathematics and the environmental & nature sciences. There is established the National Committee for Education Objective – the Board of Advisors under the President, the Prime Minister and the Congress of the USA, and as well the National Board for Educational Standards and Education Improvement Issues.
The US Government has made a decision on improvement of the scientific and research basis in the educational sphere that stipulates the allocation of significant funds for psychological and pedagogical science and establishment of the four new scientific and research institutes such as:
1) The national institute of the students’ advancement in studies, educational programs and evaluation of the progress quality;
2) The national institute of the ‘problem children’ education;
3) The national institute of administration of education, finances, strategy and management within the education;
4) The national institute of the post-school education, library science and continuous education.
The said institutes are in charge of the researches and study of the most ‘algesic’ points of the modern education. It is possible to say the enhancement of the US education system is organized upon adequate scientific and financial level.
Analysis of the official documents containing the international didactic concepts stipulating the goals and objectives of the US higher education enables us to make the following conclusions: the USA recognizes the leading role of the higher education, declares it s availability and academic freedom; the formation of the decent citizen’s personality is considered to be the objective of the education.
The US Governmental legislative documents rather clearly and completely define the functions foreseen by competence of the local authorities in charge of education as to development and certification of the local standards, procedures for administrative works financing and their compliance with the federal programs.
THE HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM IN GREAT BRITAIN.
English higher education system is known to be one of the oldest in Europe. The Oxford and Cambridge Universities have been functioning from the very beginning of the XIII century. However, until the beginning of the XX century, this system was represented only by ten universities with rather little number of the students. In the XX century there were established near 30 universities and almost 800 higher educational institutions of the other types (colleges and technological institutes, polytechnic institutes and teachers’ training colleges that just exist to the date) with the system of paid study.
The higher educational institutions of Great Britain are unofficially but rather strictly differentiated according to the level of prestigiousness being the basis for requirements to the entrants and the cost of study. The most prestigious are the oldest universities (the Oxford and Cambridge ones). They are the federations of colleges (the total number of the students is near 11,000). The London University is considered to be the largest one in England (40,000 students), while the total number of the universities in the country is 42. The same status is given to five higher educational institutions: Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester Business School, the Royal College of Art, London Business School and Cranfield Institute of Technology. The universities have rather insufficient quantitative quota in the English system of the higher education (850 higher educational institutions, 159 teachers’ training colleges and 30 polytechnic institutes).
Due to the centuries-old tradition, the English universities have maintained (in theory) the independence of the executive authorities, thus being subordinated just to the Parliament. The university is headed by chancellor being appointed for the ceremonies. So, for example, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II was the chancellor of the Royal University in Belfast in the 70-s. Actual administrator of the university is the vice-chancellor acting with support of the university courts, council and senate. The court is formally considered to be the supreme body, but actually its functions are limited. The council is in charge of the financial issues, while the senate – of the academic ones. The university colleges are known to have some rights of self-administration within the universities. However, the university autonomy is limited by almost complete financial dependence upon the governmental allocations as the profits gained from the scientific work and payments for study are known to be the minor quota in their budget.
The system of education, inclusive of the higher one, is supervised by the Secretary of State for Education and Science, to whom the Minister of State and two the Secretary of State Parliamentary Assistants are subordinated. The central government is not in charge of administration of the schools or colleges, hiring of the teachers and recommendation of the textbooks or programs. However, it has two important functions: setting up of the ‘minimum standards’ of the educational institutions activities and control of the financial condition. In practice, the affairs are managed by the local authorities. They are answerable to the Secretary of State. Moreover, the higher educational institutions may be audited by the Royal inspectors being directly subordinated to the Secretary of State.
The duration of study for the most specialties in the English higher educational institutions is less than in the same of the USA, and moreover, it is known to be of closer orientation. The standard duration of the study, with the minor exception, is three years, either for the universities or vocational colleges. The duration of the academic year and studying capacity (not more than 16 hours of lectures per week) is practically the same as in the United States. The lectures can be also attended on random basis. In comparison with the United States, where the comprehensive subjects are studied for almost two years and the total duration of study is four years, the three-year educational course in England can not provide for training of the perfectly competent specialist. There is no production practice; and finally, there is a limited set of subjects to be studied on the selective basis.
The system of academic degrees is similar to the United States as the English system (Bachelor, Master and Doctor) was once adopted by the Americans. Having mastered educational course in certain higher educational institutions, the students sometimes pass the Bachelor’s degree examination in another one. However, the way to be qualified as Master is known to be longer as the Master’s degree is not so widely spread and it is given to those who failed to complete the educational course for Doctors.
There are no common rules of the students’ acceptance in the English higher educational institutions. These are different depending on institution. However, it is dependable upon the entrant, his preliminary gained skills and the showings in the matriculation certificate. Having obtained the secondary education, the entrant is invited for interview, upon results of which there is made a decision whether he would pass the examination from 3-4 subjects. The interview shall indicate the talents and motivations of the future student, and as well his social make-up (system of valuable orientations).
The school teachers are trained in the general teachers’ training colleges and the teachers’ training branches of the universities. There are higher teachers’ training institutions with state and private ownership. Entrance to the one-year teachers’ training course in the university is allowed only upon three-year study in any department, i.e. upon mastering the certain academic course and being qualified as the specialist in one or three subjects.
The teachers’ training colleges have no common curriculum; as a rule the curriculum of the three-year teachers’ training college includes: main subject studies, professional course, pedagogical studies and school practice. The special attention is paid to the subjects that shall be taught by the future teacher (up to 25% of the total studying time). More than 40% of the studying time is devoted to the professional course being studied within one or two years. As a rule, the professional course includes the subjects with comprehensive academic orientation: English language, mathematics, geography, history, etc – in total up to eight subjects. A quarter of the academic hours is used for pedagogical studies that include: pedagogical philosophy, psychology, pedagogical sociology, teaching methods, history of pedagogics, comparative pedagogy, school hygiene, school science, etc.
The main forms of education are still the lectures and seminars. The technical means, role-laying games, micro-teaching, etc. have been more and more applied in the educational process recently. The studies held by personally assigned to the student teacher (tutor) are traditionally considered to be rather difficult. Such studies provide for establishment of the close contact between the students and the teachers. In such case, the teacher acts not only as the source of knowledge, but also teaches his educatee to act and think in independent manner. Generally, the school pedagogical practice of the students lasts for 14 weeks. Such practice includes the observation over the teaching & educational process and some lessons supervised by the teacher. In order to complete with education upon graduation from the teachers’ training colleges, the students shall work on probation within one year at the place of employment.
THE HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM IN FRANCE.
As distinct from Great Britain and the United States of America, the French universities are not located at the top of the educational pyramid. The leading positions are taken by the Higher Schools (Fr. - grand l’ecole) providing for education of specialists in the field of business, state administration and engineering. They provide the high level of education and therefore, the entrance examination is allowed only for those who successfully completed the first-year educational course in the university.
Administration of the higher education in France is exercised by the Minister of National Education through mediation of the National Board for Higher Education and Research. There are regional boards for higher education and research established within the economic regions (that as a rule match to the academies, or in the other words – academic counties) being headed by principals – the chairmen of the local universities councils. The university is supervised by the president elected once for five years; it often happens so that the president of the largest local university simultaneously is the principal of academy (academic county). Practically all higher educational institutions in France are state owned and being financed by the government.
The private higher educational institutions in France include five catholic universities, near a quarter of the total number (120) of the Higher Schools subordinated to the industrial companies and churches. There are less than 10% of the French students who study in privately owned higher educational institutions.