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I. Read and translate the text. IX. Write down sentences with the following idioms

IX. Write down sentences with the following idioms.

VIII.Write down the forms of the irregular verbs.

To bring, to cost, to do, to feel, to get, to hold, to know, to lose, to meet, to see


1. Out of a blue (clear) sky – Совершенно неожиданно, как гром среди ясного неба, как снег на голову

2. Never say die – Не падайте духом, не отчаивайтесь

Unit 13




Both words in the term profit motive are important. Profit is what is left after all appropriate costs have been deducted from business revenues. A motive is a drive, impulse, or desire that moves one to action. Thus, the profit motive refers to the financial difference between revenues and costs as an incentive to action. The profit motive influences individuals, partnerships, or corporations to undertake economic activity. An important aspect of profit motive is that economic action is motivated by prospects of future profits. Business managers are influenced by past profits (losses) only as these provide information about probable future results. Although the profit motive stimulates economic activity in business, there is no guarantee that profits will result. When a company’s costs exceed its revenues, the company operates at loss. Because of the risk of loss, the private enterprise system is sometimes referred to as a profit and loss system. An enterprise may be able to operate at a loss for some period of time without being forced out of business. However, over the long run the private business enterprise must generate profits to survive.

Business Risks

The profit motive encourages business owners to accept the risks that occur in the sale of goods and services in a private enterprise economy.

Fluctuations in business activity affect both individuals and organization in an economy. Business fluctuations are of concern to government because of their impact on orderly economic growth and tax revenues. Business managers are interested in business fluctuations because of their influence on operations and profitability.

Economists have identified three types of fluctuations in economic activity. These are: the trends, seasonal changes, and business cycles.

The Trends. A trend is an underlying long-run tendency that persists despite shorter term changes.

Seasonal Changes.Seasonal changes are due to the changing seasons of the year, holidays, or the calendar. Some agricultural products are available for processing only at certain times of the year. Both manufacturing and retailing enterprises are affected by sales demand from Christmas and Easter. Extra shopping days in a month due to variations in the calendar and the timing of paydays by business enterprises also contribute to seasonal changes in economic activity.

Business Cycles.Trends and seasonal fluctuations are overshadowed in the short run by the recurring expansion and contraction of economic activity. These recurring variations are called business cycles. Starting from a low in cyclical business activity called a trough, an increase in demand for goods and services from a relatively low level causes business to expand production. Numerous factors may cause the expansion of production, including increased government, business, or consumer spending that stimulates demand for goods and services.



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