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Form of the state rule
Form of the state
Form of the state is the method of organization and realization of state power.
The concept “form of the state” consists of 3 elements:
1. a form of the state rule is the structure of bodies of state power;
2. a form of the state territorial systemisthe method of territorial organization of the state, division of the state on parts and distribution of power between the state and these parts;
3. a form of the state political regimeis the method and character of realization of state power.
The are 2 forms of the state rule: monarchyandrepublic.
Monarchy is a form of the state rule according to which sovereign power in the state is executed almost or partly by one person that belongs to the ruling dynasty (Pharaoh, king, shah, tsar, imperator) and obtains power by inheritance and for the whole life, not on certain term. Monarch is not legally responsible for his actions.
There are 2 types of monarchy: unlimited (absolute)andlimited (constitutional).
The absolute monarchy is a historical type of monarchy, in which the monarch has unlimited power (for example: the Russian empire of times of Petro I). In the unlimited monarchy monarch does not divide sovereign power with anybody, he or she is the legislative, executive and judicial power in the state.
There is a theocratic monarchyin which the monarch as the main person in the state is the religious leader (for example, Vatican).
There are 2 types of limitedor constitutional monarchies: parliamentary and dualistic.
Limitedor constitutional monarchyis monarchy in which the power of monarch is limited by the law (constitution).
In parliamentary monarchy the real power in the country belongs to the parliament and government. The main person in the state is the prime minister. Monarch is the symbol of the nation and state, he or she provides stability of society, executes representatives functions.
There are such limited (constitutional) monarchies nowadays: Great Britain, Sweden, Norway, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Luxemburg, Japan etc.
Dualistic monarchy is the state in which the state power is divided between a monarch and a parliament (for example, Morocco). A monarch has real power in executive part, he or she forms the government, the members of the government are responsible before the monarch. In this type of a monarchy the parliament is the legislative power.
Republic is a form of the state rule in which the state power belongs to the collective legislative body of state power (parliament). The population of the state elects the members of the parliament for a definite term.
There are parliamentary, presidentialandmixed republics.
1. Presidential republic is characterized by combination of the plenary power of chairman of the state and head of government in the hands of the president. The main person of the state power in the state is the president.
In the presidential republic:
1)thepresident is elected by the people or by electors of the special collective body of state power;
2)the president is Commander-in-Chief, has right of veto and some other rights (for example, right to dismiss the parliament);
3)the president is a head of the state and forms government;
4)the government is responsible before the president;
5)there is no prime minister in such a state;
6)the president and the government are not responsible before the parliament;
7)the legislative power belongs to the representative body of the state power (parliament).
For example:theUnited States of America, Argentina, Belarus, Uzbekistan etc.
2. Parliamentary republicis characterized by concentration of the state power in the hands of parliament which is elected by the people. The parliament is the main body of the state power in the state.
In the parliamentary republic:
1)the president is elected by the parliament;
2)the president is only a chairman of the country, his function are minimal;
3)the government is formed by the parliament from the representatives of parties which have majority in the parliament;
4)the government is responsible before the parliament;
5)there is a prime minister in the state, who is the head of the government and has much power in the state;
6)the parliament appoints the prime minister;
7)the parliament can give a vote of no confidence to the government. In this case the government will be in retirement.
For example: Italy, India, Canada, Moldova etc.
3. Mixed republicunites attributes of presidential and parliamentary republics.
There 2 types of mixed republics: presidential–parliamentaryandparliamentary–presidential.
Ukraine is presidential–parliamentary republic.