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Borrowed (Loan) Prefixes





EtymologicalBackground of English Affixes

Native Prefixes

a- 1. (OE an, on: on, in, into) ashore, afire

a- 2. (OE of - : of, off, away from) anew, akin

a- 3. (OE a- : out, up) arise , awake

be- (OE bi -: by, near) betroth; befriend; behead

mis- (OE mis- : bad, badly) misbehave, misprint

un- (OE un- : not, without, reversal of) unfair; unfold; untruth

 

Native Suffixes

-y (OE -ig) sleepy, sandy

-ly (OE -lic : form ) brotherly

-ish (OE -isc: having the quality of) foolish; reddish

-en (OE -en: made of) leaden

-ful (OE -ful, -full: full) spoonful; spiteful

-less (OE -leas: less) childless

-ward(s) (OE -weard: to, toward) backward

-ness (OE -ness, -nes, -nyss, -nys) kindness

-ship (OE -scipe fr. scyppan create) friendship

-hood (OE hād: condition, quality) childhood

-dom (OE dōm : judgement) wisdom

-er (OE -ere) player

-ster (OE -istr, -estre) mobster

-ling (OE -ling) urderling

-ock (OE -oc, -uc: small) hillock

-le (OE -el, -il, -ol) icicle, handle

-en (OE - nian) frighten

 

 

Latin-Derived Prefixes

ab-/abs-/a- (Lat. ab-: away, from) abduct

ad-/a- (Lat. ad-: to, toward, at) advent, accident

ante- (Lat. ante-: before) anteroom

com-/co- ... (Lat. com-: with, together ) compress

de- (Lat. de-: away from, off) depend, depress

dis-/di- (Lat. dis-: away, from, apart) dismiss, different

ex-/e-/ef- (Lat. ex-: out of) excursion, elocution, effort

in-/im- (Lat. in-: in, into, within) impel, incise

in-/im- (Lat. in-: not) inert, imperfect

inter- (Lat. inter-: between, among) interlocutor

non- (Lat. non-: not, without) nonsense

ob-/o- (Lat. ob-: to, forward, against) obvious, omit

per- (Lat. per-: through) perforate

post- (Lat. post-: behind, after) postscript

pre- (Lat. prae-: before) predict

pro- (Lat. pro-: before, forward, forth) progeny, profession

re- (Lat. re-: back, again, anew) reverse

sub-/sus- (Lat. sub-: under, below) submarine, suggest, support, sustain



sur- (Lat. super-: over, above, beyond) surname, supreme

trans- (Lat. trans-: over, across, beyond) transatlantic, transform

 

Greek-Derived Prefixes

a-/an- (Gk a-, an-: without, not) amoral

ana-/an- (Gk ana-: up, back, again) analysis, anagram, anode

anti- (Gk anti-: against, opposite of) antonym

dia- (Gk dia-: through, across) diagnose, diabetes

dys- (Gk dys-: bad, difficult) dyslexia

en-/em-/el- (Gk en-: into, within) endemic, ellipsis, empathy

syn-/sym-/sy- (Gk syn-: with, together) symposium, synonym

Borrowed (Loan) Suffixes

Latin-Derived Suffixes

-al manual, gradual

-ar lunar, muscular

-ic volcanic

-an American

-ary military

-able/-ible/-ble/-bil visible, viable

-ile/-il agile

-ive reflective

-ous famous

-lent violent

-ate adequate

-ite composite

-ant militant

-ent affluent

-y injury

-ine medicine

-ice service

-or pallor

-ty society

-ion diction, injection

-ment basement

-ure/-ur pressure, literature

-ance/-ence attendance, conference

-ary vocabulary

-or investor, actor

-ary/-arium library, aquarium

-ory dormitory

-age courage

-ate speculate

-fy specify

Russian-Derived Suffixes

-nik no-goodnik

-sky buttinsky

 

Greek-Derived Suffixes

-ia/-y anemia, agony

-sis/-sy hypocrisy, diagnosis

-ism heightism

-ist Marxist

-ite Israelite

-tery monastery

-isk asterisk

-ac cardiac

-oid asteroid

-ize advertize

 

French-Derived Suffixes

-esque picturesque

-ess poetess

-ette cigarette

-oon balloon, cartoon

-lier electrolier

 

Italian/Spanish-Derived Suffixes

-erino bitcherino

-o freako, muso, luxo

 

Hybridis a wordformed from words or morphemes derived from different languages.

E.g., readable (Native + Latin)

refusenik (Latin + Russian)

commuter (Latin + Native)

unpredictable (Native + Latin + Latin + Latin)

 

Polysemanticaffixes possess several connected meanings as the result of the development and changes of their original meanings.

E.g., un- 1) to reverse action: untie

2) to deprive of, to take out of: unhive, unearth

-ful 1) the amount which N contains: barrelful

2) having ..., giving...: useful, helpful

Monosemanticaffixes possess only one meaning.

E.g., -able/-ible, able/worthy to be V-ed: allowable, gradable

-less, without: colorless

pre-, before: predefine, prehistoric

re-, again, back: rewrite

[see vocabulary definitions]

 





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