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You are going to write an essay. An essay is a piece of writing which is often written from an author's personal point of view. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author.


Name of the part Explanation Useful phrases
Introductory paragraph/ introduction you state the topic and the main problem, often begins with a topic sentence It is often said / argued that ... It is a fact that ... Recently we have all become concerned that ... These days,/ Nowadays, ... .........we are becoming aware of the fact that ... In the past, people ..., but now ...
Main body consists of two or more paragraphs. Each paragraph should present a separate viewpoints (both pro and contra) supported by your reasons and examples. (On the other hand, ...) It is argued that ... (Some) People argue that ... Some may argue that ... Opponents of this view say ...Contrary to what most people believe ... As opposed to the above ideas… Some people claim that... . Despite claims that..., it is a fact that... It may be true that ...
Conclusion you express your opinion and sum up everything. Here are some useful phrases which you can use in each part of our essay To sum up, I firmly believe that… ……..In conclusion, it seems to me……..In my opinion,… /In my view,… ....... I personally believe / think / claim etc. that… (NO comma) ......It is my firm belief that ........ I firmly / strongly believe that ... ....... I am inclined to believe that ... ....... I am strongly / firmly convinced that .......It strikes me that… .......It seems to me that...


Here you have an example of the essay:

Nowadays people spend a lot of money in order to go to an English-speaking country to improve their language skills. But is it really the most effective way of learning a language?

In my opinion, learning a foreign language abroad has certain drawbacks. Firstly, it is very expensive as the tuition fee for overseas students is rather high. Besides, when you study abroad, you have to adapt to a very different way of life, which can be quite stressful. What is more, English teachers do not speak Russian so if you don't know English well, you will not be able to understand their explanation.

On the other hand, it is often assumed that it is better to study a language abroad because you can always use it speaking with native speakers. However, I doubt that learners will have lots of opportunities to speak a new language abroad as they do not know many people there. It is also believed that Russian teachers are not as qualified as those in England. I totally disagree with this opinion because Russian teachers can compare two languages and explain grammar rules better.

To sum up, I would argue that the best way to learn a language is to study it in your native country because you can always get the necessary help from your teachers. Moreover, today we have lots of opportunities to improve our skills such as communicating with English pen-friends over the Internet. I think that we should travel abroad so as to practise a language rather than study it.


Your essay’s topic is “Interactive communication”. Please, follow the next steps:

1.What does “interactive communication” mean?

2.Think of the pros and cons of interactive communication

3.Present your own point of view. (Use about 200 words)


Grammar Part

Present Perfect & Past Simple

1. Change the tense for Present Perfect in the next sentences and then translate them.

1. I am eating my breakfast. 2. We are drinking water. 3. He is bringing them some meat and vegetables. 4. You are putting the dishes on the table. 5, They are having tea. 6. She is taking the dirty plates from the table. 7. The children are putting on their coats. 8. The pupils are writing a dictation. 9. My friend is helping me to solve a difficult problem. 10. I am learning a poem. 11. She is telling them an interesting story. 12. Kate is sweeping the floor. 13. The waiter is putting a bottle of lemonade in front of him. 14. Susan is making a new dress for her birthday party. 15. She is opening a box of chocolates.


2. Open the brackets using Present Perfect or Past Simple.

1. We (to travel) around Europe last year. 2. My father knows so much because he (to travel) a lot. 3.1 (to see) Pete today. 4. She (to see) this film last Sunday. 5. Alex (to meet) his friend two hours ago. 6.1 just (to meet) our teacher. 7. The children already (to decide) what to do with the books. 8. Yesterday they (to decide) to help their grandmother. 9. Helen speaks French so well because she (to live) in France. 10. She (to live) there last year. 11. The rain (to stop) and the sun is shining in the sky again. 12. The rain (to stop) half an hour ago. 13. Mary (to buy) a new hat. 14.1 (to buy) a pair of gloves yesterday. 15. The wind (to blow) off the man's hat, and he cannot catch it. 16. The weather (to change), and we can go for a walk. 17. The wind (to change) in the morning.


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