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SEWAGE TREATMENT AND WASTE MANAGEMENT TEXT A

civilization, chemicals, storm, separation, sanitary, discussion, effi­ciency, domestic, specialized, filter, seasonality, disinfection, regula­tion, resource, jurisdiction, composition, mechanical, biological, in­dustrial, commercial, technical.

sewerage— канализация;

sewer— канализационная труба (коллектор);

sewage — сточные воды;

run-off— отходы, отбросы (промышленности);

pollutant — загрязняющий агент, загрязнитель;

contaminant — загрязняющее вещество, примесь;

domestic sewage — коммунально-бытовые сточные воды;

industrial wastewater— промышленные сточные воды;

residential wastewater — отходы коммунальной канализации;

institutional wastewater — сточные воды общественных предприятий;

waterway — водоспуск, водоотвод;

discharge сток (слив) сточных вод;

seasonality — сезонность, сезонные изменения;

street-flushing operation — поливка улиц;

backing-up — (гидр.) запруживание, затор;

treatment plant — станция по очистке, водоочистное сооружение; storm water — ливневые воды.

Sewerage*

 

[That the civilization increases, the social and technical progress have led to natural water resources composition changes, rivers, lakes and ground waters containing numerous pollutants of various origin — is obvious.]0

Sewage created by residential, institutional, commercial and in­dustrial (ICI) establishments includes household waste liquid from
toilets, baths, laundry waste, showers, kitchens plus storm water run- off that is disposed via sewers. [Sewage must be removed promptly in order to avoid endangering people health passing through special treatment.]0 Sewage from residence is domestic sewage; the one from industrial processes is industrial waste.

[Sewerage systems are known to be combined sewers.]0 They can complicate and reduce the efficiency of treatment plants due to seaso­nality. Heavy storms contributing more flows than treatment plants can handle overwhelm the sewage system and cause its spill or over­flow.



[As rainfall picks up various contaminants (soil particles, heavy metals, animal urine and feces, organic compounds, oil and grease), jurisdictions oblige to treat storm water discharging into waterways.]0 Retention basins, wetlands, filters and vortex separators to remove coarse solids are used for it. Sanitary sewers are smaller than storm ones, and backing-tip of raw sewage occurs if excessive storm water is allowed into sanitary sewer systems.

Sewage collection and treatment is under discussion of local, state and federal regulations and standards. Separation of household waste into 'grey' and 'black' water is in common all over the world but de­pends on local conditions. Thus, 'grey' water is permitted for watering plants, toilets and street-flushing operations.

[In spite of definite progress in abating water pollution, many en­terprises still need both time and money to meet water quality stan­dards; environmental regulations and general guidelines ensure ac­ceptable discharge of wastewater effluent.]0

* 'Sewerage' can mean:

• system of sewers;

• removal of waste by sewer system;

• sewage.

(1 750 п.зн.)

■ Sewage is a type of wastewater and a potential source of pollu­tion, especially in urban areas.

■The removal of sewage is accomplished by sewers which are a part of a sewerage system.

■ Sewage is a liquid waste containing some solids from households and industry.

■ Humanity is making progress in abating water pollution.

■ Sewage composed of different types of wastes is to be removed passing through treatment.

5. Соедините части AB, чтобы получить законченное высказы­вание.

 

А.

1. Sewage is the mixture of waste...

2. Sewer is a pipe or passage under the ground that carries...

3. Contaminant is...

4. Pollutant is a substance that makes air, water, soil, etc. dangerously...

5. Run-off is rain or...

6. Environment is air, water, and land...

7. Environmental regulations, guidelines and policies guarantee...

8. Endanger is to put someone or something...

9. Sewerage is the system by which waste material and water are car­ried...

 

B.

1. ...away waste material and used water from houses and factories.

2. ...a poisonous substance that makes something impure.

3. ...away in sewers and then treated to stop it being harmful.

4. ...from the human body and used water that is carried away from houses by sewers.

5. ...acceptable discharge of wastewater effluent.

6. ...other liquid that flows off the land into the rivers.

7. ...in a dangerous situation where they can be hurt, damaged, or de­stroyed.

8. ...dirty, and is caused by cars, factories, etc.

9. ...in which people, animals, and plants live.

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