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HISTORY OF TOURISM
Вставьте подходящие модальные глаголы (must, can, need).
1. I ... not believe. I failed another test. — But you ... go to more classes and fewer parties. 2. Perhaps we ... meet next week. 3. ... he speak English in childhood? 4. My neighbors ... grow their own vegetables. 5. ... you turn the music down, please. 6. I ... not believe. I am already out of money. — You ... learn not to spend so much. — But I ... nоt help it, there are just things that I ... to buy. 7. If you want to improve your English, you ... work very hard. 8. ... I take this book? — Certainly, but you ... not give it to anybody. 9. Mother, ... I go to the country tomorrow? — No, you ... not. The doctor says you ... stay at home for a day or two. 10. There is something wrong with your television set. You ... call a repairman. — Oh, we ... not do, it! My brother ... fix it himself. 11. ... we bring these textbooks every day? — No, you ... not: you ... take them from the library, 12. ... you go to the country with us? — No, I am afraid I ... not: I ... go to the library.
6. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу слова:
1.Tour operators publish colorful.......
2. There are ...... and shipping companies among major tour operators.
3. Tourist information office clerks give .. to customers on passports and visas, luggage and the Customs.
4. Travel agencies make individual travel....
5.A sales outlet clerk sells tickets and tours, collects money and gives …herself.
6. People who work for themselves are called...
7. Tour operators always do market.. when they develop tours.
8. There are..... among tour operators' products.
l9....... give free-lancers a permission to work.
10. There are .... with booklets and folders at travel agencies and their outlets.
I1. Free-lancers are registered and they pay....
12. Major tourist companies branch out and have...
13. Some tourist companies are members of....
14.There are hotel rooms, train and ....... among separate tourist services.
15. Most free-lancers work in......
1) …Neva flows into…Gulf of …Finland.
2) ...Atlantic is very deep.
3) ...Kazbek is ...highest peak of ...Caucasus.
4) ...Himalayas are covered with snow.
5) ...USA is ...largest country in ...America.
6) ...Crimea is washed by...Black Sea.
7) ...Europe and ...America are separated by...Atlantic Ocean.
8) ...Nile flows across ... north-eastern part of... Africa to ...Mediterranean Sea.
9) ...Philippines are situated to ...south-east of...Asia.
10) ...Thames flows in...U.K.
11) ...Russia occupies... eastern part of...Europe.
12) ...Washington is the capital of...United States of America.
HOW IT ALL STARTED
People started travelling long ago. The first travellers were nomads and pilgrims, merchants and traders. They travelled along rivers, lakes and seas. The first travellers used simple means of travelling: boats and ferries on the water and camels in the desert.
The most famous travellers were explorers. Among them were Marco Polo from Venice in the 13th century, Afanasy Nikitin from Russia, Christopher Columbus and Vasco de Gama from Portugal in the 15th century, Magellan from Spain and Amerigo Vespucci from Italy in the 16th century, James Cook from England in the 18th century and other adventurers from Spain, Italy, Portugal, France, England and Holland. They made journeys to Asia, Africa and America.
Travel grew and developed as long as means of transport kept on growing.
With the 19th century the age of modern trains came. In the late 19th century the first motor-cars appeared.
The age of airplanes changed travel crucially. In the early 20th century jet planes emerged. They made air travel available to all people. Air travel is the fastest and the most convenient mode of travelling. No place in the world is more than 24 hours away by jet. Passengers eat, sleep, watch movies, listen to music on airplanes.
TOURISM IN THE 19TH CENTURY
In the 19th century tourism was mainly for the rich. They had enough money and spare time for travelling.
Not many working people in Europe had paid holidays.
Well-to-do people used to take tours to France, Germany, Switzerland and Austria. They spent time at famous sea resorts in France. They went to health resorts and spas of Germany for recreation and treatment. They travelled to the resorts in the mountains of Switzerland and Austria.
In the early 19th century tourists used to travel by trains and steamships.
In the first half of the 19th century steamships used to move within inland waterways only. But in the second half of the century they started covering longer distances. The steamships carried passengers on all oceans and seas of the world.
THOMAS COOK COMPANY
Thomas Cook Company is the oldest travel company in the world. As a matter of fact, Thomas Cook from England opened the age of organized tourism.
It started in 1841 when Thomas Cook arranged the first trip for 570 Englishmen by railway.
In 1843 Thomas Cook organized the first group tour by train. This time he provided tourists with meals and tickets for the races. So it was the first package tour.
Later on Thomas Cook made arrangements for organized visits to the First International Industrial Exhibition. The Exhibition opened in London -in 1851. The tourists came from different parts of England.
All those were domestic tours. However, Thomas Cook decided not to stick to domestic tourism within his country only. Four years later, in 1855 he arranged the first overseas trip. It was a tour to the Exhibition in Paris. After that regular tourist trips started to other countries of Europe.
Thomas Cook continued expanding his travel business. In 1866 he arranged the first trip of two groups of Englishmen to the USA.
Thomas Cook set up the first travel agency.
Thomas Cook Company is still very active on the travel market. .It is both a tour operator and a travel agency. But now two German companies own it.
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