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SOURCE AND ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF LITHOSPHERE POLLUTION





SOIL is the top layer of the land surface of the earth that is composed of disintegrated rock particles, humus, water, and air. It is laboratory to make processes of decomposition and synthesis of organic substances.

The most valuable property of the soil is FERTILITY: ability to supply plants with moisture and nutritious substances.

Processes which distort soil are: erosion, salification, ravaging, swamping, mudflow, land-slide, contamination, tearing away.

The EROSION the wearing away of rocks and other deposits on the earth's surface by the action of water, ice, wind, etc.

SALIFICATION is a process of accumulation natrium, cadmium, manganese saline in the soil in unacceptable concentration.

RAVAGING is transformation of fertile ground to infertile desert.

SWAMPING is the excess moisture contents in soil.

MUDFLOW is a flow of soil mixed with water down a steep unstable slope.

The LAND-SLIDE is sliding of a large mass of rock material, soil, etc., down the side of a mountain or cliff.

CONTAMINATION is covering of a surface or penetration of the soil by industrial or economic activity waste. There’re so-called «industrial desert» - land space where the ground is polluted with industrial waste appeared due to people activity. The industrial sewage is expedient to be used or reprocessed. The perspective industrial trend is wasteless and low-wasted technologies.

TEARING AWAY is transferring of agricultural areas or wood for cities, industry, highways, pipelines and other needs construction.

BOWELS are the upper accessible layer of lithosphere.

Bowels are used for:

1. extracting minerals;

2. storing of liquid and gaseous minerals;

3. building up the structures and transport communications;

4. burial of sewage and waste water.

 

There’s always an interaction that goes between human and environment.

It’s substance and energy exchange.

For example we’ll examine exchange that goes through the air. Heat exchange and gas exchange: air is the source of oxygen.

Soil and water are sources of the basic NUTRITION elements:

1. proteins;

2. carbohydrates;

3. fats;

4. minerals;

5. water;

6. vitamins.

PROTEIN is a plastic material to build new cells. Getting into organism with food it decomposes for amino-acids which then forms human protein.

CARBOHYDRATE serves as a source of energy, they are also called glucose.

FAT is a fuel for organism. There’s an expression: “Fats burn in the flame of carbohydrates extracting energy, necessary to build protein and in turn new cells. As any fire it takes oxygen.

Body consists of WATER at 68-70%.

MINERALS assist to intake water. Water goes towards minerals.

VITAMINS are substances providing proper functioning of every organ.

 





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