Архитектура-(3434)Астрономия-(809)Биология-(7483)Биотехнологии-(1457)Военное дело-(14632)Высокие технологии-(1363)География-(913)Геология-(1438)Государство-(451)Демография-(1065)Дом-(47672)Журналистика и СМИ-(912)Изобретательство-(14524)Иностранные языки-(4268)Информатика-(17799)Искусство-(1338)История-(13644)Компьютеры-(11121)Косметика-(55)Кулинария-(373)Культура-(8427)Лингвистика-(374)Литература-(1642)Маркетинг-(23702)Математика-(16968)Машиностроение-(1700)Медицина-(12668)Менеджмент-(24684)Механика-(15423)Науковедение-(506)Образование-(11852)Охрана труда-(3308)Педагогика-(5571)Полиграфия-(1312)Политика-(7869)Право-(5454)Приборостроение-(1369)Программирование-(2801)Производство-(97182)Промышленность-(8706)Психология-(18388)Религия-(3217)Связь-(10668)Сельское хозяйство-(299)Социология-(6455)Спорт-(42831)Строительство-(4793)Торговля-(5050)Транспорт-(2929)Туризм-(1568)Физика-(3942)Философия-(17015)Финансы-(26596)Химия-(22929)Экология-(12095)Экономика-(9961)Электроника-(8441)Электротехника-(4623)Энергетика-(12629)Юриспруденция-(1492)Ядерная техника-(1748)
Microclimate (meteorological conditions) is assumed a climate of internal environment of work area that is introduced as common action of the following parameters: air temperature, air humidity, air circulation and radiant heat.
The environment outside the human’s body is able to accept the heat, which is worked out by the human. That heat transfers into environment due to temperature conductivity through the cloth, convection while air contacts open skin areas, radiant heat, vaporizing of water from the skin surface and heating of air on respiration. The balance between the heat extracted by body and the absorbed by environment maintains normal thermal and functional condition of the human.
Imbalance of heat exchange causes over heating or overcooling, then loss of consciousness or even thermal death. Heat extraction depends on physical exertion and makes from 85 J/s (easy work) to 500 J/s (heavy work).
Human organism keeps its temperature stable in wide range of environmental parameters. Body maintains temperature at about 36.6 deg С when air temperature changes from -40 deg С to +40 deg С. However some parts of the body may have temperature varying from +24 deg С to +37.1 deg С.
The intensive heat-exchange runs in liver – its temperature equals to 38.0..38.5 deg C. It’s also known the biological cycle of the skin temperature: maximal (37.0..37.1 deg C) at 4.00 - 7.00 p.m., minimal (36.0..36.2 deg C) at 2.0 - 4.00 a.m.
Lung ventilation is volume of the air inhaled per one hour. It depends on physical exertion, air humidity, and air temperature.
Thermal condition of person depends on physical exertion, temperature of surrounding objects and microclimate parameters (air temperature, air circulation, air humidity and atmospheric pressure).
Low air temperature causes rising heat emission through convection and radiation and may lead to overcooling of organism.
High air temperature causes opposite process. It’s in fact that work capacity of a person descents at air temperature over 30 deg C. Insufficient air humidity causes intensive vaporizing from mucous membranes, their drying and chapping and consequently infecting. Water and saline removed by sweating should be made up cause their loss brings to blood clotting and effects cardio-vascular system.
6 % dehydration of organism violates brain activity and worsens vision. 15 - 20% dehydration may be fatal. Low saline concentration deprives blood of ability to hold water and violates cardio-vascular system. At high air temperature organism loses carbohydrate, fat, protein.
Longtime being at high air temperature and humidity may cause heat accumulation in organism and its hyperthermia, when body temperature rises to 38 - 40 deg C. Headache, dizziness, wrong color perception, weakness, mouth dryness, vomiting, sweating are symptoms of hyperthermia. Increasing heart rate and respiration riches blood with residual nitrogen and carbon dioxide, what exhibits as paleness, blue color of skin, wide pupils, sometimes cramps, loss of consciousness.
Lowering temperature causes overcooling (hypothermia). Decreasing frequency of respiration follows hypothermia, inhale takes more volume. Then it comes muscle tremor, which is body reaction that transfers muscles contraction into heat. That allows holding up lowering temperate for a while. Cold injury is consequence of low temperature.
Appropriate air circulation makes normal occupational condition also. Human organism is already sensitive to airflow at 0.15 mps. Air flow temperature up to 36 deg C makes it feel chilling, and over 40 deg C has inhibiting effect.
Heat transfer from hot or melted surface goes through convection, heat conductivity and heat radiation. Convection is the process of heat transfer through a fluid (steam flow, air, liquid), caused by movement of molecules from cool regions to warmer regions of lower density; heat conductivity is the property of transmitting heat in solid body; radiant heat is heat transferred in the form of electromagnetic radiation rather than by conduction or convection (infrared radiation), infrared radiation transfers into thermal energy only being incident to a surface.
Radiant energy may cause burns like after direct contact with hot surfaces. Burns are classified according to the depth of tissue affected:
1. first-degree burn: skin surface painful and red;
2. second-degree burn: blisters appear on the skin;
3. third-degree burn: destruction of both epidermis and dermis.
Heat regulation is called ability of organism to regulate heat exchange with environment and keep body temperature constantly at normal level independent on outer conditions and physical activity.
Basic factor of heat regulation is ability to extend or contract blood flow in peripheral vascular system. Overheating makes vascular system extend and heat transfers outside more intensive. Overcooling causes contraction of the vascular system.
Дата добавления: 2014-01-04; Просмотров: 376; Нарушение авторских прав?