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Consonant clusters at the beginning of the words

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  5. Articulatory classification of English consonants
  6. Before you start learning the theoretical material make sure that you know the given below words. Transcribe and translate them.
  7. CHANGES IN CONSONANT QUALITY
  8. Classification of consonants in the manner of articulation.
  9. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANTS ON THE MANNER OF ARTICULATION
  10. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANTS ON THE PLACE OF ARTICULATION
  11. Consonant Alternations



Билет

Rolled

Occlussive-constrictive

Constrictive

Occlusive

Noise consonants:

Occlusive noise cons: [p,t,b,d,k,g]

constrictive fricatives (noise cons): [f,v,Ө, δ, s, z., ʃ, ʒ, h]

Occlussive-constrictive (affricates): [tʃ, ʤ]

Sonorants:

Occlusive:m,n,η

Constrictive: w,l,r,j

22 билет 1 Prefixes and word stress. Answer: Prefixes and word stress. Eng pr p34(full) Some words are made up of a prefix and a root. Prefix --- dis like---- root Common prefixes include: -de-, dis-, il-, re-, un-. Sometimes the root can be used as an independent word (e.g: like) but other roots cannot (e.g` renounce` but not `nounce`). In some words the prefix is unstressed and is only made prominent for particular contrast. Compare: A: Do you enjoy driving? B: No, I really dislike it   A: I thought you LIKED driving? B:No, I really DISlike it (contrast)   Other words with these prefixes have secondary stress on the prefix: ,decom`pose ,recon`sider ,unaf`ected   In words with de- and re- prefixes is usually pronounced /di-/ and /ri-/ if it is unstressed and /di:/ and /ri:-/ if it has secondary stress. Compare: De`grade /di-/ but ,decom`pose /di:/ Re`claim /ri-/ but ,recon`sider /ri:/    

2. Make the phonetic analysis of the following words:

Chain– [‘tʃein] – 5 letters, 1 syllable, 1 vowel sound, 1 diphthong-ei, short vowel-no, long vowel-no, 2 cons sounds, noise cons – voiced(weak)-no, 1 voiceless - tʃ, 1 sonorant- n. acc manner of art – noise cons- occlusive-no, constrictive-no, 1 occlusive-constrictive-tʃ. sonorants- 1 occlusive- n, constrictive-no. acc place of art – labial-no, lingual-forelingual- 1 interdental- n, alveolar-no, post-alveolar-no, 1 palate-alveolar- tʃ, mediolingual-no, backlingual-no, glottal-no.

Merge– [‘mǝ:dʒ] – 5 letters, 1 syllable, 1 vowel sound, diphthong-no, short vowel-no, 1 long vowel- ǝ: , 2 cons sounds, noise cons – 1 voiced(weak)-dʒ, voiceless-no, 1 sonorant- m. acc manner of art – noise cons- occlusive-no, constrictive-no, 1 occlusive-constrictive-dʒ. sonorants- 1 occlusive- m, constrictive-no. acc place of art – 1 labial- 1 bilabial-m, labiodental-no, lingual-forelingual- interdental-no, alveolar-no, post-alveolar-no, 1 palate-alveolar- dʒ, mediolingual-no, backlingual-no, glottal-no.

Genuine– [‘dʒenjuin] – 7 letters, 3 syllables, 3 vowel sound, diphthong-no, 3 short vowel- e, u, i, long vowel-no, 4 cons sounds, noise cons – 1 voiced- dʒ, voiceless-no, 3 sonorant- n, n, j. acc manner of art – noise cons- occlusive-no, constrictive-no, 1 occlusive-constrictive-dʒ. sonorants- 2 occlusive- n, n, 1 constrictive- j. acc place of art – labial-no, lingual-forelingual- 2 interdental- n, n, alveolar-no, post-alveolar-no, 1 palate-alveolar- dʒ, mediolingual- palatal- j, backlingual-no, glottal-no.



3. Classification of consonants according to the place of articulation:

According to the position of the active organ of speech against the point of articulation consonants may be:

Labial

Lingual

Glottal

1. Labialconsonants are made by the lips. They may be bilabial and labio-dental. Bilabial cons. Are produced when both lips are active. They are: [p,b,m,w]

Labio-dental cons are articulated with the lower lip against the edge of the upper teeth. [f,v]

2. Lingual consonants are classified into forelingual, mediolingula, backlingual

Forelingual cons are articulated with the tip or the blade of the tongue

Acc.to the place of obstruction forelingual cons:

Interdental [Ө, s,z,n,l]

Dental

Alveolar: t,d

Post alveolar: r

Palato alveolar : ʃ, ʒ, ʤ, tʃ

Mediolingual cons are produced with the front part of the tongue. They are always palatal: j,η

Backlingualcons are also called velar, because they are produced with the back part of the tongue raised towards soft palate: k,g

3. Glottal cons h is articulated in the glottis.

A consonant cluster (or consonant blend) is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel. In English, for example, the groups /spl/ and /ts/ are consonant clusters in the word splits.

To create the b sound, my lips press together, then release. In the b-r cluster, the r sound begins at the same time as the lips open. This creates the following sound: /br/. The b-r cluster is at the beginning of the following words:

break
bring
brother

In order to be understood clearly you should:

· Avoid changing a consonant in a cluster to a different consonant For ex: saying `present` to pleasant`

· Avoid leaving out one of the consonant sounds For ex: saying `problem` for `problem`

· Avoid adding an extra vowel between consonants F.ex: `tewin` for `twin`

· Avoid adding an extra vowel at the beginning of the word F.ex: `estop` for `stop`

2. Make the phonetic analysis of the following words:

Inaudible[in’ɔ:dǝbǝl] – 9 letters, 4 syllables, 4 vowel sound, diphthong-no, 3 short vowel- i, ǝ, ǝ, 1 long vowel- ɔ: , 4 cons sounds, noise cons – 2 voiced(weak)- d, b, voiceless-no, 2 sonorant- n, l. acc manner of art – noise cons- 2 occlusive- b,d, constrictive-no, occlusive-constrictive-no. sonorants- 1 occlusive- n, 1 constrictive- l. acc place of art – 1 labial- 1 bilabial-b, labiodental-no, lingual-forelingual- 2 interdental- n,l, alveolar-no, post-alveolar-no, palate-alveolar-no, mediolingual-no, backlingual-no, glottal-no.

Memorable[‘memǝrǝbl] – 9 letters, 3 syllables, 3 vowel sound, diphthong-no, 3 short vowels- e,ǝ,ǝ, long vowel-no , 5 cons sounds, noise cons – 1 voiced(weak)-b, voiceless-no, 4 sonorants-m,m,r,l. acc manner of art – noise cons- 1 occlusive-b, constrictive-no, occlusive-constrictive-no. sonorants- 2 occlusive- m,m, 2 constrictive- l,r. acc place of art – labial- 3 bilabial-m,m,b, labiodental-no, lingual-forelingual- 1 interdental-l, alveolar-no, 1 post-alveolar-r, palate-alveolar-no, mediolingual-no, backlingual-no, glottal-no.

Mosque[‘mosk] - 6 letters, 1 syllable, 1 vowel sound, diphthong-no, 1 short vowel-o, long vowel-no, 3 cons sounds, noise cons – voiced(weak)-no, 2 voiceless-s,k, 1 sonorant- m. acc manner of art – noise cons- 1 occlusive-k, 1 constrictive-s, occlusive-constrictive-no. sonorants- 1 occlusive- m, constrictive-no. acc place of art – labial- 1 bilabial-m, labiodental-no, lingual-forelingual- 1 interdental-s, alveolar-no, post-alveolar-no, palate-alveolar-no, mediolingual-no, 1 backlingual-velar-k, glottal-no.

3. Classification of consonants according to the degree of noise.

Answer:According to the degree of noise English consonants are divided into 2 classes:

Noise consonants: strong noise consonants: [p,t,k,f,Ө, s,f,h,tʃ], weak noise cons: [b,d, g,v, ʤ, ʒ, δ, z]

Sonorantsare made with tone prevailing over noise because of a rather wide air passage. [m, n, η, w,l,r, j]





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